Tipologi Struktur Sodial dan Spasial Desa Miskin (Studi Kasus Desa Sidoharjo, Kabupaten Ponorogo)

Rahmawati, Ainun (2014) Tipologi Struktur Sodial dan Spasial Desa Miskin (Studi Kasus Desa Sidoharjo, Kabupaten Ponorogo). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Kemiskinan adalah tidak terpenuhinya kebutuhan dasar manusia seperti pangan, sandang, perumahan, pendidikan, kesehatan, dan interaksi sosial. Penyebab kemiskinan pedesaan dibagi menjadi dua, kemiskinan almaiah karena kelangkaan sumberdaya alam dan kemiskinan buatan karena struktur sosial yang ada menyebabkan masyarakat tidak dapat mengelola sumberdaya alam yang ada. Penyebab kemiskinan Desa Sidoharjo diduga termasuk dalam kemiskinan buatan. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui tipologi struktur sosial dan spasial desa miskin, dimana di dalamnya akan dihitung tingkat partisipasi masyarakat, tingkat kerapatan hubungan, serta jaringan sosial yang terbentuk berdasarkan tiga indeks sentralitas, yaitu degree centrality, closeness centrality, dan betweeness centrality. Kemudian untuk analisis spasial akan dilakukan perhitungan mengenai kedekatan jarak rata rata masyarakat miskin dan tidak miskin di Desa Sidoharjo secara fisik, untuk selanjutnya dianalisis pola permukiman yang terbentuk di masyarakat. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Analisis Jaringan Sosial dan Analisis Cluster. Hasil penelitian adalah tingkat pasrtisipasi masyarakat Desa Sidoharjo tergolong rendah dengan tingkat kerapatan hubungan cenderung tinggi untuk masyarakat tidak miskin, serta densitas rendah dan sedang untuk masyarakat miskin. Sentralitas masyarakat tidak miskin cenderung lebih luas dengan jumlah responden yang terisolir lebih sedikit. Jangkauan jaringan yang lebih luas memberikan peluang masyarakat tidak miskin untuk lebih cepat mengentaskan diri mereka dari kemiskinan. Pola pemukiman masyarakat Desa Sidoharjo cenderung mengelompok dengan jarak rata rata antar responden miskin lebih dekat dibandingkan responden tidak miskin, masing masing sebesar 18m dan 32 m. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ikatan jarak fisik masyarakat tidak miskin cenderung lebih dinamis, sehingga mereka dapat lebih bebas untuk bereksplorasi memperbaiki perekonomian mereka. Hal tersebut dapat dinimimalisir dengan mengoptimalkan peran tokoh sentral dengan karakteristik tingkat keaktifan dan nilai sentralitas yang tinggi serta jangkauan jaringan sosial yang cukup luas dibandingkan responden lainnya, sehingga pola interaksi masyarakat miskin dapat lebih terbuka. Secara spasial lokasi responden sentral di Dusun Sidowayah berada cukup jauh dari jalan utama. Meskipun dengan aksesibilitas yang kurang memadai apabila dibandingkan dengan kedua dusun lainnya, responden sentral di Dusun Sidowayah masih cukup aktif mengikuti kelembagaan mulai dari tingkat RT hingga desa. Jadi, berdasarkan penelitian ini, kedekatan secara emosional cenderung lebih berpengaruh terhadap kondisi perekonomian dan keaktifan masyarakat terhadap kelembagaan yang ada di Desa Sidoharjo apabila dibandingkan dengan kedekatan fisik spasial.

English Abstract

The poor are those who can not fulfiil themself with their basic human needs, such as clothing, food, housing, education, health, and social interaction. There are two causes of village poverty. First, natural poverty because of the lack of natural resources. Second, artificial poverty because of the social structure. In this research, we can estimate that the causes of poverty in Desa Sidoharjo is artificial poverty. The purposes of this research is to identify the typology of social structure and spatial in a village which has poverty problem, include the rate of participation, density, and social network in their society with three centrality index, such as degree centrality, closeness centrality, and betweeness centrality. In spatial analysis we can identify the clustered settlement from the physical distance of their housing society. This research using two methods: Social Network Analysis and Cluster Spatial Analysis. The result of this research are: the rate participation of people in Desa Sidoharjo is low; the density of poor is low and medium and the density of non poor is high; non poor has larger network than the poor. So that, the larger network gives the larger change for non poor to rid themself from poverty. Desa Sidoharjo has clustered settlement which has formed around a certain point. The average distance of the poor is 18 m and the non poor is 32 m. It means that the distance of the poor is closer than non poor, so that the non poor can be easily to explore their economic in a good ways. We can use the keypersons to minimalize the weak social ties and make the strong communities that stay together thrive better. In spatial, the location of keyperson in Dusun Sidowayah was so far from the primary accessibility in Desa Sidoharjo. Although, the keyperson still has the high participation to join the social community, from the lowest until the highest level. The conclusion, in this research emotional closeness has the bigger effect in economic condition and social prosperity than the physical closeness.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FT/2014/320/051404305
Subjects: 300 Social sciences > 307 Communities > 307.1 Planning and development > 307.121 6 City planning
Divisions: Fakultas Teknik > Teknik Perencanaa Wilayah dan Kota
Depositing User: Hasbi
Date Deposited: 25 Aug 2014 15:04
Last Modified: 12 Nov 2021 06:27
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/142607
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