Karakteristik Spesies Penyusun Dan Beberapa Parameter Biologi Ikan Selar (Famili Carangidae) Yang Didaratkan Di Pelabuhan Perikanan Samudera Bitung

Saranga, Rudi (2017) Karakteristik Spesies Penyusun Dan Beberapa Parameter Biologi Ikan Selar (Famili Carangidae) Yang Didaratkan Di Pelabuhan Perikanan Samudera Bitung. Doctor thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Peneliti mencatat ada sekitar 2.500 spesies ikan laut hidup di perairan Indonesia dan dalam statistik hasil tangkap perikanan laut Indonesia hanya mengelompokkan ke dalam 92 kategori nama kelompok ikan dan bukan berdasarkan jenis ikan. Hal ini sebuah kontradiktif, karena pemberian nama spesies ikan bukan didasarkan pada jenis spesies ikan, tetapi lebih didasarkan pada kategori atau nama kelompok ikan, sehingga untuk satu nama kelompok ikan bisa terdiri dari beberapa spesies. Ikan selar merupakan salah satu ikan hasil tangkap perikanan laut Indonesia kategori pelagis kecil yang terdiri dari 2 kelompok yakni selar dan bentong, tetapi umumnya hanya disebut sebagai ikan selar saja. Hasil studi pendahuluan terkait spesies penyusun ikan selar yang didaratkan di PPS Bitung, mengindikasikan bahwa ada 4 jenis ikan selar berdasarkan identifikasi morfologi yakni Tude, Oci, Tude Batu dan Ekor Kuning Napo. Untuk mendapatkan karakteristik keempat jenis ikan selar dilakukan kajian morfologi, morfometrik, meristik, dan genetik. Sedangkan parameter biologi melalui kajian reproduksi, pertumbuhan, kohort, rekrutmen, dan status pengusahaan. Penelitian bertujuan (1) menemukan dan menganalisis karakteristik spesies penyusun ikan selar yang didaratkan di Pelabuhan Perikanan Samudera Bitung melalui pendekatan morfologi, khususnya morfometrik dan meristik; (2) mendapatkan dan menganalisis karakteristik genetik dan konfirmasi spesies secara genetik melalui analisis DNA region COI; (3) mendapatkan dan menganalisis beberapa parameter biologi dari masing-masing jenis ikan selar; (4) menganalisis status pengusahaan sumberdaya ikan selar di perairan sekitar Bitung berdasarkan informasi biologi. Peneltian dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari 2016 sampai dengan bulan Januari 2017 di Pelabuhan Perikanan Samudera Bitung menggunakan metode survei deksriptif. Kajian karakteristik spesies dengan melakukan studi literatur sejarah nomenklatur dan taksonomi masing-masing spesies ikan selar, kajian morfologi melalui identifikasi morfometrik melalui principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis, anova K-means cluster, dan meristik, serta kajian genetik menggunakan 4 sampel DNA dengan analisis DNA-COI. Kajian karakteristik biologi meliputi nisbah kelamin, tingkat kematangan gonad, indeks kematangan gonad, hubungan panjang berat, ukuran ikan pertama kali matang gonad, ukuran ikan pertama kali tertangkap, pola pertumbuhan, kelompok ukuran ikan, dan rekrutmen. Hasil penelitian mendapatkan bahwa secara morfologi terdapat 4 spesies penyusun ikan selar yang tertangkap di perairan sekitar Bitung, dengan nama lokal Tude, Oci, Tude Batu, dan Ekor Kuning Napo. Hasil analisis PCA mendapatkan ke 4 kelompok spesies, sedangkan analisis hierarchical cluster mendapatkan 3 kelompok dan Anova K-means Cluster mendapatkan 12 karakter morfologi yang berbeda dan 6 karakter yang sama. Hasil analisis DNA region COI mendapatkan 3 spesies ikan selar yang tertangkap di perairan sekitar Bitung, yakni jenis Tude dan Oci yang selama ini dianggap sebagai spesies yang berbeda merupakan spesies yang sama yakni Selar crumenophthalmus dengan nilai similaritas 99%. Jenis Tude Batu merupakan spesies Selar boops, dan jenis Ekor Kuning Napo merupakan spesies Selaroides leptolepis. Nibah kelamin jantan lebih besar dari betina pada S. crumenophthalmus dan S. boops, sedangkan pada S. leptolepis ikan betina lebih besar, tetapi secara umum perbandingan ikan jantan dan betina stabil yakni 1:1. Pola pertumbuhan alometrik positif untuk semua jenis ikan dengan nilai b>3, yang menginformasikan bahwa pertambahan beratnya lebih cepat dari pertambahan panjangnya. Identifikasi histologi gonad seluruh jenis ikan selar termasuk tipe pemijahan asinkronisasi (partial spawning) yakni perkembangan oosit pada stadia yang berbeda satu satu ovarium. Puncak musim pemijahan S. crumenophthalmus dua kali setahun dan S. boops sekali dalam setahun. Ukuran pertama kali matang gonad dan pertama kali tertangkap S. crumenophthalmus 17,63 cm dan 15,93 cm sedangkan S. boops 16,30 cm dan 15,10 cm. Laju pertumbuhan S. crumenophthalmus Lt = 25,50 (1–exp-1,01[t –(-0,016]) dan S. boops Lt = 26,40 (1–exp-1,70[t-(-0,184]). Penambahan individu baru tertinggi ke terendah S. crumenophthalmus terjadi pada bulan Juli, Juni, dan September, sedangkan S. boops terjadi pada bulan Juli, Mei, dan April. Status pengusahaan yang dilakukan kurang baik, karena ukuran ikan pertama kali tertangkap lebih kecil dari ukuran pertama kali matang gonad (Lc<Lm) dan termasuk kategori tangkap lebih (over exploitation) secara biologi. Ada beberapa kebaharuan yang dihasilkan dalam penelitian ini. Pertama adalah pengelompokkan lokalitas ikan selar yang didaratkan di PPS Bitung ke dalam nomenklatur spesies yang valid yakni Selar crumenophthalmus, Selar boops, dan Selaroides leptolepis. Kedua adalah pembuktian secara genetik bahwa ikan selar jenis Tude dan Oci merupakan spesies yang sama. Ketiga memadukan dua metode dalam mengidentifikasi kelompok ikan selar yakni pendekatan morfologi dan genetik. Keempat memadukan tiga indikator biologi yakni perbandingan Lc dan Lm, persentase ikan matang gonad, dan rasio potensi pemijahan (SPR) untuk menentukan status pengusahaan terkini sumberdaya ikan selar.

English Abstract

The reseacher was noted than approximately 2,500 species of fish live in Indonesian waters and Indonesian marine fisheries catch statistics only classified into 92 categories of fish group names and there are not classified basen on their species. It has become contradictory since the fish is classified into category or group of fish instead of their species. As the a consequence, one group of fish may consist of several species. Trevally is one of the fish species inhabited Indonesian water that is categorized as pelagic species which consists of 2 groups, selar and bentong, but in general these two is just called selar. Previous studies related to species composition of trevally landed in Bitung Oceanic Fishing Port indicated that based on their morphology, there were 4 types of trevallies, namely Tude, Oci, Tude Batu and Ekor Kuning Napo. Morphological, morphometric, meristic and genetic analyses were conducted to identify the characteristics of those four types of trevallies. On the other hand, reproduction, growth, cohort, recruitment and fish resource exploitation status analyses. The objectives of the study were (1) to identify and analyze the characteristics of species composition of trevally landed in Bitung Oceanic Fishing Port (BOFP) through morphological approach, more specifically morphometric and meristic; (2) to identify and analyze genetic characteristics and valid species confirmation of all types of fish that categorized as trevally by the local community; (3) to identify and analyze several biological parameters of each type of the trevally; (4) to analyze trevally resource exploitation status around Bitung waters according biology information. The research was conducted between February 2016 and January 2017 at Bitung Oceanic Fishing Port (BOFP) using descriptive survey method. The characteristics of the species were analyzed by conducting historical literature review on nomenclature and taxonomy of each fish species. Morphological characteristic was analyzed through a morphological identification using principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis, anova K-means cluster and meristic. Genetic analysis was conducted using 4 DNA samples with DNA-COI analysis. The biological characteristics analyses includes sex ratio, gonad maturity level, gonad maturity index, relationship between length and weight of the fish, length at first maturity, length at first capture, growth pattern, fish size group, and recruitment. The findings showed that in terms of morphology, there were 4 species of trevallies caught in the waters around Bitung; their local names were Tude, Oci, Tude Batu, and Ekor Kuning Napo. The PCA analysis identified 4 groups of species, the hierarchical cluster analysis identified 3 groups and the anova K-means cluster analysis identified 12 different morphological characters and 6 identical characters. The DNA region COI analysis identified 3 species of trevallies which caught around Bitung, Tude and Oci that previously considered as different in species; were evidenly same species is called Selar crumenophthalmus as they were 99% similar. The species of Tude Batu is Selar boops, and Ekor Kuning Napo is Selaroides leptolepis. Male of S. crumenophthalmus and S. boops had larger genital compared to the female, but female S. leptolepis had larger genital than the males. However, general ratio between male and female fish was stable at 1:1. The allometric growth pattern was positive allometric for all fish species with the value of b>3, which informs us that the increase of weight gain is faster than length. Based on the histologic identification of the gonads, all types of fish had partial spawning in which oocytes were developed in different stadia in one ovary. The peak of the spawning season for S. crumenophthalmus occurred twice a year, while that for S. boops occurred once a year. The lenght of the first maturity and the lenght of first capture for S. crumenophthalmus was 17,63 cm and 15,93 while those for S. boops was 16,30 cm and 15,10 cm consecutively. The growth rate of S. crumenophthalmus describes as Lt = 25,50 (1-exp-1,01 [t – (-0,016]) and Lt = 26,40 (1-exp-1,70 [t –(-0,184]) for S. boops. The highest to lowest production for S. crumenophthalmus occurred in July, June, and September, while July, May, and April for S. boops. The management of trevally resources in Bitung categorized as sub-par and over exploited because the size of the fish when it was caught for the first time was smaller than its size when its gonad matured (Lc<Lm). There are several novelties in the result of this study. The first is the classification of the travellies which landed in BOFP into the valid species nomenclature namely is Selar crumenophthalmus, Selar boops and Selaroides leptolepis. The second is the finding genetic evidence which shows that Tude and Oci types of local travellies are the same species namely is Selar crumenophthalmus. Third is integrate of morphological and genetic methods to determine species of travellies. Fourth is integrate of ratio between Lc and Lm, persentage of fish maturity and spawning potential ratio (SPR) methods to determine the current status exploitation of travellies resources.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor)
Identification Number: DIS/597.58/SAR/k/2017/061802425
Uncontrolled Keywords: CARANG DAE, FISHES
Subjects: 500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 597 Cold-blooded vertebrates > 597.5 Protacanthopterygii
Divisions: S2/S3 > Doktor Ilmu Perikanan dan Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2018 02:46
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2021 07:02
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/9656
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