Potensi Arthropoda Tanah Sebagai Bioindikator Kualitas Tanah Di Agroforestri Kopi

Suheriyanto, Dwi (2017) Potensi Arthropoda Tanah Sebagai Bioindikator Kualitas Tanah Di Agroforestri Kopi. Doctor thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Agroforestri merupakan pendekatan pengelolaan lahan yang berkelanjutan dengan menggabungkan pertanian dan kehutanan ke dalam sistem produksi yang terintegrasi. Sistem agroforestri memberikan keuntungan secara ekonomi dari hasil tanaman dan produk kayu, serta habitat yang potensial untuk tempat berlindung berbagai jenis hewan dan tumbuhan. Penggabungan berbagai jenis pohon di lahan pertanian dapat membantu dalam menjaga ketersediaan nutrisi dan meningkatkan kesuburan tanah. Degradasi lahan dan penurunan kesuburan tanah menjadi ancaman besar bagi produktivitas pertanian. Petani membutuhkan indikator peringatan dini kualitas tanah dan alat pemantauan untuk memandu pengelolaan tanah, karena biaya mencegah degradasi tanah lebih murah dibandingkan biaya tindakan perbaikan. Cara lama yang digunakan untuk mengevaluasi kualitas tanah didasarkan pada penggunaan indikator fisika, kimia dan mikrobiologi. Metode baru berdasarkan arthropoda tanah telah diusulkan untuk mengevaluasi kualitas tanah. Arthropoda tanah dipilih karena memberikan respon sensitif terhadap praktik pengelolaan lahan dan berkorelasi positif dengan fungsi tanah. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis sifat fisik dan kimia tanah, mengidentifikasi genus arthropoda tanah, menganalisis kelimpahan dan keanekaragaman genus arthropoda tanah, menganalisis hubungan antara kelimpahan genus arthropoda tanah dengan sifat fisik dan kimia tanah dan mengetahui genus arthropoda tanah yang berpotensi sebagai bioindikator kualitas tanah pada sistem agroforestri kopi. Penelitian dilakukan dalam 3 tahap, yaitu: penelitian I dilakukan pada bulan September sampai Oktober 2013 di Cagar Alam Manggis Gadungan dan perkebunan kopi PT. Mangli Dian Perkasa Desa Mangli Kecamatan Puncu Kabupaten Kediri. Penelitian II dilakukan pada bulan April sampai Mei 2015 di Cagar Alam Manggis Gadungan, perkebunan kopi PT. Mangli Dian Perkasa Desa Mangli Kecamatan Puncu Kabupaten Kediri dan agroekosistem di Desa Siman Kecamatan Kepung Kabupaten Kediri. Penelitian III dilakukan pada bulan Januari sampai Pebruari 2016 di PT. Perkebunan Nusantara XII Kebun Bangelan dan perkebunan kopi rakyat Desa Bangelan Kecamatan Wonosari Kabupaten Malang. Di tiap lokasi dilakukan pengambilan sampel arthropoda tanah dengan cara membuat 3 jalur dan di setiap jalur dibuat 10 titik pengamatan dengan jarak antar titik pengamatan 5 m. Metode yang digunakan untuk mendapatkan sampel arthropoda tanah adalah metode pitfall trap dan hand sorted. Sifat fisik tanah yang diukur adalah suhu dan kelembaban tanah. Sifat kimia tanah yang diukur adalah pH, bahan organik, karbon organik, N total, P dan K. Data arthropoda tanah dianalisis untuk mengetahui indeks keanekaragaman Shannon (H’), indeks kekayaan Margalef (R), indeks kemerataan (E) dan Indicator Value Index (IndVal). Data sifat fisik dan kimia tanah dari 2 lokasi diuji t sedangkan yang dari 3 lokasi diuji dengan analisis varian. Data sifat fisik tanah, kimia tanah dan arthropoda tanah dilakukan analisis multivariate, yaitu Principal Component Analysis (PCA), similaritas Morisita, Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Analisis H, R, E, uji t, anava, PCA, similaritas Morisita dan CCA menggunakan program PAST versi 3.14, sedangkan analisis IndVal menggunakan software R. ii Hasil analisis sifat fisik dan kimia tanah dari agroforestri kopi adalah sebagai berikut: pH tanah (4,7-6,33) asam sampai agak asam, C organik (0,89-4,95 %) sangat rendah sampai tinggi, rasio C/N (6,2-16,1 %) rendah sampai tinggi, N total (0,14-0,31 %) rendah sampai sedang, P (6,87-17,88 mg/kg) rendah sampai sangat tinggi, K (0,18-1,26 me/100g) rendah sampai sangat tinggi. Arthropoda tanah yang diperoleh dari agroforestri kopi terdiri dari klas Arachnida, Chilopoda, Collembola, Diplopoda dan Insekta. Klas yang memiliki jumlah ordo terbanyak adalah klas Insekta, ordo yang memiliki jumlah famili terbanyak adalah ordo Coleoptera dan famili yang memiliki jumlah genus terbanyak adalah famili Formicidae. Kelimpahan arthropoda tanah di agroforestri kopi didominasi oleh kelompok semut (genus Camponotus dan Ponera) dan Collembola (genus Entomobrya dan Lepidocyrtus). Agroforestri kopi memiliki keanekaragaman arthropoda tanah yang tinggi. Kelimpahan semut (genus Camponotus dan Ponera) di Agroforestri Kopi berhubungan dengan N total, P, K, kelembaban, pH dan suhu tanah. Kelimpahan Collembola (genus Entomobrya) berhubungan dengan suhu. Kelimpahan Collembola (genus Lepidocyrtus) berhubungan dengan N, P, C organik, bahan organik, kelembaban dan rasio C/N. Arthropoda tanah yang berpotensi sebagai bioindikator di agroforestri kopi adalah semut (genus Camponotus) dan Collembola (genus Lepidocyrtus dan Desoria

English Abstract

Agroforestry is an approach to sustainable land management that combines agriculture and forestry into an integrated production system. Agroforestry systems provide economic benefits from crop and wood products, as well as a potential habitat for shelter animals and plants. The integration of trees on farms can help to maintain the availability of nutrients and improve soil fertility. Land degradation and declining soil fertility are a major threat to agricultural productivity. Farmers require early warning indicators of soil quality and monitoring tool to guide the land management, because the cost of preventing soil degradation is cheaper than the cost of restoration action. The old methods used to evaluate soil quality are based on the use of physical, chemical and microbiological indicators. The new method is based on soil arthropods have been proposed to evaluate the soil quality. Soil arthropods have a sensitive response to land management practices and positively correlated with soil functions. The study aimed to analyze the physical and chemical properties of soil, to identify the soil arthropod genus, to analyze the abundance and diversity of soil arthropod genus, to analyze the relationship between abundance of soil arthropod genus with soil physical and chemical properties and to know the soil arthropod genus that has potential as bioindicators of soil quality in coffee agroforestry. The research was conducted in 3 stages: research I conducted in September to October 2013 at Manggis Gadungan Nature Reserve and coffee plantation PT. Mangli Dian Perkasa Mangli Village Puncu District Kediri Regency. Research II was conducted from April to May 2015 at Manggis Gadungan Nature Reserve, coffee plantation of PT. PT. Mangli Dian Perkasa Mangli Village Puncu District Kediri Regency and agroecosystem in Siman Village, Kepung District Kediri Regency. Research III was conducted from January to February 2016 at coffee plantation of PTPN XII Bangelan Garden and community coffee plantation Bangelan Village, Wonosari District, Malang Regency. At each location, arthropod sampling is done by making 3 lines and in each line is made 10 observation points with distance between observation points 5 m. The method used to obtain arthropod soil samples is pitfall trap and hand sorted method. The soil physical properties measured were the temperature and soil moisture. The soil chemistry properties measured were pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total N, P and K. Soil arthropods data were analyzed to find out the Shannon diversity index (H '), Margalef richness index (R), evenness index (E) and Indicator Value Index (IndVal). Soil physical and chemical properties data from 2 sites were t test whereas from 3 locations were analyzed by variance analysis. The soil physical properties, soil chemistry properties and soil arthropod data were analyzed multivariate, i.e. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), similarity of Morisita, Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA). Analysis of H, R, E, t test, anava, PCA, similarity Morisita and CCA using PAST program version 3.14, while IndVal analysis using R software. The results showed that the soil physical and chemical properties in coffee agroforestry were soil pH (4.7-6.33) acid to moderately acid, organic C (0.89-4.95 %) very low to high, C/N ratio (6.2-16.1) low to high, N (0.14-0.31 %) low to moderate, P (6.87- iv 17.88 mg/kg) low to very high, K (018-1.26 me/100g) low to very high. Soil arthropods obtained from coffee agroforestry consist of the Arachnida, Chilopoda, Collembola, Diplopoda and Insect class. The class that has the largest order number is the Insect class, the order with the largest familiy number is the Coleoptera order and the family with the largest genus number is the Formicidae family. The abundance of soil arthropod in coffee agroforestry is dominated by ant (Camponotus and Ponera genus) and Collembola (genus Entomobrya and Lepidocyrtus). Coffee agroforestry has high soil arthropod diversity. The abundance of ant (Camponotus and Ponera genus) in Coffee Agroforestry is related to total N, P, K, moisture, pH and soil temperature. Collembola abundance (Entomobrya genus) is related to temperature. Collembola abundance (Lepidocyrtus genus) is related to organic C, N, P, organic matter, moisture and C/N ratio. The genus of soil arthropod that has potential as bioindicators of soil quality in coffee agroforestry is ant (Camponotus genus) and Collembola (Lepidocyrtus and Desoria genus).

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor)
Identification Number: DIS/595/SUH/p/2017/061705839
Uncontrolled Keywords: ARTHROPODA, SOILS - QUALITY, COFFE PLANTATIONS, AGROFORESTRY
Subjects: 500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 595 Arthropoda
Divisions: S2/S3 > Doktor Biologi, Fakultas MIPA
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 28 Jul 2017 06:55
Last Modified: 30 Dec 2020 13:20
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/778
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