Simulasi Dampak Perubahan Iklim terhadap Ketersediaan Air Tanaman Tebu di Wilayah Malang

Haditiya, Firmanda Rizky (2017) Simulasi Dampak Perubahan Iklim terhadap Ketersediaan Air Tanaman Tebu di Wilayah Malang. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Peningkatan konsentrasi gas rumah kaca di atmosfer berdampak pada suhu udara yang semakin panas dan diperkirakan meningkat hingga 5,8o C pada akhir abad ke-21, diikuti perubahan pola curah hujan di setiap wilayah. Kondisi tersebut dapat menjadi kendala terhadap sektor pertanian terutama karena berhubungan dengan pemenuhan kebutuhan air. Perbedaan karakter tanah juga menjadi faktor penting berkaitan dengan kemampuan tanah menyediakan air bagi tanaman. Beberapa karakter fisik tanah yang berpengaruh pada kemampuan tersebut yaitu tekstur dan retensi air. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak perubahan iklim dan perbedaan tekstur tanah terhadap neraca air, pemenuhan kebutuhan air serta potensi reduksi hasil tanaman tebu di Kabupaten Malang yang merupakan sentra produksi tebu di Indonesia. Penelitian dilakukan mulai bulan Mei hingga bulan Agustus 2017. Lokasi penelitian berada di Kecamatan Wajak, Sumbermanjing, dan Gedangan yang dipilih berdasarkan perbedaan tekstur tanah dan luas area tanam tebu. Penelitian menggunakan metode deskriptif dengan teknik survei dan simulasi mengenai dampak perubahan iklim yang didasarkan pada data perubahan iklim global. Penelitian ini terbagi dalam beberapa tahapan meliputi persiapan awal, survei lapangan dan analisis sifat fisik tanah, analisis neraca air, ketersediaan air tanaman serta potensi reduksi hasil tanaman tebu. Simulasi dampak perubahan iklim terhadap komponen pemenuhan kebutuhan air tanaman tebu ini menggunakan perhitungan neraca air metode Thornthwaite-Mather dan model CROPWAT 8.0 dengan skenario C0 (aktual) dan skenario perubahan iklim yang mengkombinasikan peningkatan suhu sebesar 2o C, 4o C, dan 6o C dengan perubahan curah hujan -10%, -5%, +5%, serta +10% dari kondisi aktual (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa skenario dengan peningkatan suhu dan penurunan curah hujan 10% mampu mengurangi periode bulan surplus di semua lokasi studi. Namun, pergeseran menjadi bulan defisit hanya terjadi di lokasi Sumbermanjing dan Gedangan. Peningkatan suhu sebesar 2o6o C menyebabkan peningkatan kebutuhan air tanaman sebesar 515%, sehingga berdampak pada ketersediaan air selama periode bulan kering tidak mencukupi kebutuhan air tanaman. Potensi reduksi di lokasi Gedangan paling tinggi mencapai 5,1% pada skenario C9 (suhu +6o C dan curah hujan -10%). Kemampuan tanah menahan air yang tinggi tidak menjamin potensi reduksi rendah karena tergantung pada kondisi iklim.

English Abstract

Increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere had an impact on increasing the surface temperature of the Earth which could reach 5,8o C at the end of the 21st century and followed by rainfall patterns change in some areas. The present condition could become a problem to the sustainability of agriculture, especially related on the crop water needs. The differences in soil characteristics are also an important factor related to soil ability to provide water for crop. Some of soil physical characteristics that affect these ability is like soil texture and water retention. This research aims to determine impact of climate change in 3 location with difference soil texture on the water balance, the fulfillment of crop water needs and potential reduction of sugarcane yields in Malang region which set off as the center of sugar cane production in Indonesia. Research was conducted from May to August 2017. The soil sampling is located in Wajak, Sumbermanjing and Gedangan district which choosen base on texture disparity and wide plantation area of sugarcane. It used descriptive methods with survey and simulated climate change impacts based on global climate change data. This research divided into several stages including initial preparation, field survey and soil physical analysis, water balance analysis, water availability and potential reduction of sugarcane. Simulation of climate change effects on the fulfillment of sugarcane’s water needs is using Thorntwaite-Mather method and CROPWAT 8.0 model with C0 scenario (actual) and climate change scenario which combines the increasing temperature such as 2o C, 4o C, and 6o C and changes rainfall around -10%, -5%, + 5%, and + 10% from actual conditions (C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8, C9, C10, C11, C12). The results showed that a scenario which use the increase of temperature and the decrease of rainfall by 10% are able to reduce the surplus months period in all research sites. However, the shift into a deficit month only occurs in Sumbermanjing and Gedangan district. Increased temperature by 2o6o C causes an increase in the water crop needs by 515% from actual condition, thus could impacting the water availability during the dry months period which could not fulfill the crop water needs. The highest potential reduction is in Gedangan site which reached 5,1% in the C9 scenario (temperature + 6o C and rainfall -10%). The high quality in holding water could not assure the low potential reduction because it also depends on climatic conditions.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2017/791/051711008
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting > 631.58 Special methods of cultivation > 631.587 Irrigation / Sprinkler irrigation
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Ilmu Tanah
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono Wahyono
Date Deposited: 22 Dec 2017 01:17
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2020 10:23
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/7430
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