Studi Kadar C-Organik Tanah Pada Berbagai Penggunaan Lahan Di UB Forest

Mukaromah, Miftakhul (2017) Studi Kadar C-Organik Tanah Pada Berbagai Penggunaan Lahan Di UB Forest. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Pada umumnya alih guna lahan hutan menjadi lahan pertanian akan menurunkan jumlah diversitas vegetasi. Diversitas vegetasi yang rendah dapat menurunkan jumlah masukan serasah, diversitas biota tanah dan kandungan bahan organik tanah (BOT). Salah satu contoh dari hutan produksi adalah UB forest. UB forest memiliki berbagai macam penggunaan lahan dengan tegakan utama yang mendominasi adalah pinus dan mahoni. Pada dasarnya, penggunaan lahan terdapat tutupan lahan yang menghasilkan serasah, sehingga dapat menekan laju erosi, menurunkan tingkat degradasi lahan dan unsur hara pada tanah tetap terjaga. Selain itu, perbedaan seresah yang beragam dapat mempengaruhi masukan bahan organik tanah. Serasah pinus dan mahoni umumnya lambat dilapuk karena memiliki C/N rasio 14,86 dan 38 selain itu ditunjang dengan kandungan lignin tinggi (24,30%). Peningkatan bahan organik juga ditunjang dengan pemberian pupuk. Pemberian pupuk bertujuan untuk memperoleh hasil maksimal dari tumbuhan bawah seperti kopi, wortel, talas, dll. Oleh karena itu, C-organik merupakan salah satu indikator penting bagi kualitas tanah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mempelajari kadar C-organik tanah pada berbagai penggunaan lahan dan kedalaman di UB forest. Penelitian ini terletak di kaki lereng Gunung Arjuna di dalam kawasan UB forest desa Tawang argo, kecamatan Karangploso dan desa Bocek, kecamatan Singosari, kabupaten Malang. Pengambilan contoh tanah dilakukan di lima penggunaan lahan yaitu (1) kawasan lindung (KL) ; (2) pinus + kopi (PK) ; (3) pinus + tanaman semusim (wortel, bunga kol) (PS) ; (4) mahoni + kopi (MK) dan (5) mahoni + talas (MS). Contoh tanah dianalisis di Laboratorium Kimia Tanah FP UB pada bulan April sampai Agustus 2017. Pengambilan contoh tanah dilakukan pada plot pengamatan dengan ukuran (20x20 m) dimana setiap plot memiliki 3 ulangan. Setiap plot dibuat 3 sub plot berukuran (5×5 m) yang ditentukan secara acak. Pengambilan contoh tanah dilakukan pada setiap sub plot dengan kedalaman (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, dan 50-100 cm). Parameter yang diamati yaitu, kadar C-organik tanah, bobot isi tanah, bobot kering serasah dan luas bidang dasar. Analisis data dilakukan menggunakan Software Genstat dan diuji lanjut BNT taraf 5%. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh kedua variabel dilakukan uji korelasi dan regresi yang meggunakan Software Ms. Excel. Kadar C-organik tanah pada berbagai penggunaan lahan di UB forest memiliki kadar yang beragam. Rerata kadar C-organik di berbagai kedalaman (0-100 cm) pada kawasan lindung (KL) dan pinus + kopi (PK) (60% dan 200%) lebih tinggi dibandingkan C-organik pada mahoni + kopi (MK), pinus + tanaman semusim (PS) dan mahoni + tanaman semusim (MS). Kadar C-organik tanah pada kedalaman 0-30 cm 58% lebih tinggi daripada kedalaman 30-100 cm. Perbedaan kadar C-organik tanah pada berbagai tutupan lahan di UB forest diduga karena perbedaan kehilangan C-organik (dekomposisi dan perombakan) dan kualitas masukan bahan organik dari masing-masing sistem penggunaan lahan.

English Abstract

The use of forest land into agroforestry based on coffee and seasonal crops decreases the amount of vegetation diversity thus decreasing the input of litter, soil biota diversity and soil organic matter content (BOT). One of the example of forest production is UB forest. UB forest has a wide range of land uses with dominant stands being pine and mahogany. Basically, land use is a land cover that produces litter, so it can reduce the rate of erosion, decrease the level of land degradation and nutrients on the ground to stay awake. In addition, different of various litter can affect the input of soil organic matter. The litter of pine and mahogany is generally slowly decayed because it has C/N ratio of 14.86 and 38 in addition supported by high lignin content (24.30%). Increased of organic matter is also supported by the provision of fertilizer. Provision of fertilizer aims to obtain the maximum results from lower plants such as coffee, carrots, taro, etc. Therefore, C-organic is an important indicator for soil quality. The purpose of this research for studying the level of soil C-organic in various land use and depth in UB forest The research is located at foot slopes of Mount Arjuna inside UB forest village Tawang argo, Karangploso subdistrict and Bocek, Singosari subdistrict, Malang Regency. Soil sampling was conducted in five land uses suc as (1) protected area (KL); (2) pine + coffee (PK); (3) pine + seasonal plants (carrots, cauliflower) (PS); (4) mahogany + coffee (MK) and (5) mahogany + taro (MS). Soil samples were analyzed at Soil Chemistry Laboratory of Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University from April to August 2017. Soil sampling was conducted on 20x20 m observation plot where each plot has 3 replications. Each plot has 3 randomly plotted sub plots (5 × 5 m). Soil sampling was performed on each sub plot with depth (0-10, 10-30, 30-50, and 50-100 cm). Parameters observed were C-organic, bulk density, litter dry weight and diameter at breast height (DBH). Data analysis was done using Software Genstat and tested by LSD 5%. To know the influence of both variables, the correlation and regression test which use Ms Software. Excel. The level of C-organic soil in various land use in UB forest has various levels. Average of C-organic content in various depth (0-100 cm) in protected area (KL) and pine + coffee (PK) is higher than C-organic on mahogany + coffee (MK), pine + seasonal (PS) and mahogany + seasonal crop (MS). The level of depth C-organic soil 0-30 cm is higher than the depth of 30-100 cm. Differences of soil C-organic in various land cover in UB forest are suspected due to differences in organic C-loss (decomposition) and differences quality of organic matter inputs from each land use system.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2017/939/051712031
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.4 Soil science > 631.47 Soil and land-use surveys
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Ilmu Tanah
Depositing User: Yusuf Dwi N.
Date Deposited: 20 Dec 2017 02:39
Last Modified: 18 Nov 2020 04:13
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/7268
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