Analisis Dampak Fluktuasi Curah Hujan Terhadap Pembungaan Dan Upaya Konservasi Air Di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit

Nugroho, Radita Cahya (2017) Analisis Dampak Fluktuasi Curah Hujan Terhadap Pembungaan Dan Upaya Konservasi Air Di Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Kalimantan Tengah merupakan salah satu wilayah dengan kondisi iklim yang sangat berfluktuatif dan memiliki curah hujan yang tinggi. Pada kondisi curah hujan tinggi, kebutuhan air tanaman akan tercukupi akan tetapi banyak air yang terlimpas. Pada kondisi curah hujan rendah hingga kering akan terjadi cekaman air sehingga meningkatkan terbentuknya bunga jantan. Salah satu upaya mengurangi terjadinya limpasan permukaan pada saat kondisi curah hujan tinggi dan mengurangi terjadinya cekaman air adalah dengan tindakan konservasi air. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis dampak fluktuasi curah hujan terhadap pembungaan, mengetahui efektifitas berbagai teknik konservasi dalam menurunkan tingkat limpasan permukaan di perkebunan kelapa sawit, dan mengetahui pengaruh teknik konservasi air terhadap ketersediaan air tanah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di lahan perkebunan PT. Agro Menara Rachmat yang merupakan anak perusahaan PT. Astra Agro Lestari (AAL) Tbk. Kalimantan Tengah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dari bulan April hingga Juni 2016. Penelitian ini dilakukan di blok OA-29 AMR dengan umur tanaman 11 tahun. Pemilihan blok dilakukan dengan memilih lahan yang memiliki tekstur tanah lom berklei. Analisis sifat fisika tanah dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Fisika dan Kimia Research and Development PT. Astra Agro Lestari, Tbk. Penelitian ini menggunakan 3 parameter pengataman yakni ; kemunculan bunga, limpasan permukaan, dan kandungan air tanah. Pengukuran bunga di lakukan di dalam plot penelitian dengan total sebanyak 72 pohon. Pengukuran limpasan permukaan di lakukan di kolam pengukuran dengan volume kolam pengukuran. Pengukuran kandungan air tanah di lakukan di empat zona perkebunan kelapa sawit yakni Gawangan Mati (GM), Antar Pokok (AP), Piringan (PI), dan Pasar Pikul. (PP). Pengukuran kandungan air tanah di lakukan hingga kedalaman 100 cm. Penelitian ini terdapat 2 macam perlakuan dan satu plot kontrol. Teknik konservasi air yang diterapkan berupa rorak dan microcathment. Pada masing-masing perlakuan terdapat 4 ulangan. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok. Analisa data diuji menggunakan analisis sidik ragam (ANOVA) pada taraf 5 % dengan Genstat 15th edition. Hasil uji ANOVA menunjukan bahwa fluktuasi curah hujan tidak berbeda nyata terhadap kemunculan jenis bunga kelapa sawit. Kemunculan bunga yang terjadi pada spiral kelapa sawit tidak mengalami perubahan yang signifikan di setiap periode pengamatan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kondisi iklim diatas permukaan tanah tidak mempengaruhi kemunculan jenis bunga. Limpasan permukaan terjadi dengan kondisi curah hujan di atas 20 mm. Tindakan konservasi mampu menurunkan limpasan permukaan dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Berdasarkan uji (ANOVA) menunjukan bahwa tindakan konservasi berbeda nyata dengan tanpa konservasi terhadap nilai limpasan permukaan. Efektifitas antar tindakan konservasi terhadap nilai limpasan ii permukaan memiliki hasil yang serupa. Tingkat efektifititas dihitung berdasarkan selisih nilai limpasan permukaan antar tindakan konservasi terhadap kontrol. Tindakan konservasi tidak mampu meningkatkan kandungan air tanah. Berdasarkan hasil uji (ANOVA) terhadap kandungan air tanah, tindakan konservasi tidak berbeda nyata dengan kontrol. Tindakan konservasi hanya mampu menahan ketersediaan air tanah lebih lama dibandingkan dengan kontrol berdasarkan lama hari tidak terjadi hujan.

English Abstract

Central Kalimantan is one of the areas with highly fluctuating climatic conditions and has a high rainfall. In conditions of high rainfall, the crop water requirement will be fulfilled but many occur runoff. In conditions of low rainfall to dry water stress will occur thereby increasing the formation of male flowers. One effort to reduce the occurrence of surface runoff during conditions of high rainfall and reduce the occurrence of water stress is the water conservation measures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of fluctuations in rainfall to flowering, determine the effectiveness of various conservation techniques in reducing surface runoff in oil palm plantations, and know the effect of water conservation techniques to soil water availability. This research was conducted in plantations PT. Agro Menara Rachmat which is a subsidiary of PT. Astra Agro Lestari (AAL) Tbk. Central Kalimantan. The research was conducted from April to June 2016. The study was conducted in block OA-29 AMR with plant age of 11 years. Selection is done by selecting a block of land which has clay loam soil texture. Analysis of soil physical properties was conducted in the Laboratory of Physical and Chemical Research and Development PT. Astra Agro Lestari Tbk. This study uses three parameters, among others; appearance of flowers, surface runoff, and soil water content. Measurement of interest in doing the research plots with a total of 72 trees. Measurement of surface runoff is done in an pond volume measurements with measurements. Measurement of soil water content in doing in four zones namely oil palm plantations Gawangan Mati (GM), Antar Pokok (AP), Piringan (PI), and Pasar Pikul (PP). Measurement of soil water content is done to a depth of 100 cm. This research there are two kinds of treatments and a control plot. Water conservation techniques applied in the form of rorak and microcathment. In each treatment there are four replications. This study uses a randomized block design. Analysis of the data was tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 5% level with GENSTAT 15th edition. ANOVA test results showed that the fluctuations in rainfall is not significantly different with the emergence of the type of oil palm flowers. The emergence of interest that occur in spiral palm oil does not change significantly in any period of observation. The results of this study indicate that climatic conditions above ground does not affect the appearance of flower types. Surface runoff occurs with rainfall above 20 mm. Conservation measures can lower compared to the control surface runoff. Based on the test (ANOVA) showed that the conservation measures significantly different from those without the conservation of the value of runoff. The effectiveness of conservation action between surface runoff values have similar results. Effectiveness level is calculated based on the difference between the value of the surface runoff conservation measures to control. iv Conservation measures are not able to improve soil water content. Based on the test results (ANOVA) to a water content of the soil, the conservation measures are not significantly different from controls. Conservation measures only able to hold soil water availability for longer compared to controls based on the old days no rain.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2017/197/051704043
Uncontrolled Keywords: Konservasi Air, Fluktuasi, Curah Hujan, Perkebunan Kelapa Sawit
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.7 Water conservation
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Ilmu Tanah
Depositing User: Yusuf Dwi N.
Date Deposited: 25 Oct 2017 07:24
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2020 12:54
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/4399
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