Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi dan Suhu Penyangraian terhadap Karakteristik Kopi Wine Arabika (Coffea arabica) Semeru

Utami Kosasih., Swandayani and Jaya Mahar Maligan,, STP., MP. (2023) Pengaruh Lama Fermentasi dan Suhu Penyangraian terhadap Karakteristik Kopi Wine Arabika (Coffea arabica) Semeru. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

RINGKASAN Peluang pasar yang ada baik di dalam maupun luar negeri mendorong semakin tingginya produksi kopi di Indonesia. Salah satu daerah yang berpotensi menghasilkan kopi dengan kualitas yang baik adalah lereng gunung Semeru dan kopi arabika semeru yang diproses dengan metode natural belum memiliki skor yang mencukupi untuk disebut specialty coffee menurut SCA (Specialty Coffee Association) sehingga masih diperlukannya peningkatan kualitas cita rasa. Peningkatan kualitas cita rasa dapat dilakukan dengan menerapkan teknologi fermentasi. Salah satu metode fermentasi kopi adalah metode wine yang merupakan modifikasi metode natural. Dimana fermentasi metode wine akan dilakukan pada rentang waktu lebih lama dengan tujuan menghasilkan cita rasa khas menyerupai wine tanpa menghilangkan cita rasa asli kopi sendiri. Namun, proses fermentasi yang kurang tepat dapat berakibat dihasilkannya cacat cita rasa. Selain itu, proses penyangraian yang dilakukan setelah fermentasi juga dapat mempengaruhi cita rasa pada kopi dikarenakan prekursor yang terbentuk selama fermentasi akan diaktifkan dan terjadi pembentukan cita rasa selama penyangraian. Sehingga penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan mengetahui lama fermentasi dan suhu penyangraian yang tepat dilakukan pada kopi arabika semeru dengan menguji karakteristik kopi baik cita rasa maupun fisikokimia kopi wine. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan metode penelitian Rancangan Acak Kelompok Faktorial (RAKF) dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama yaitu lama fermentasi yang terdiri dari empat taraf dan faktor kedua yaitu tingkat penyangraian yang terdiri dari tiga. Kombinasi perlakuan selanjutnya akan diuji mutu fisik, kadar air, kadar abu, dan cita rasa. Perlakuan terbaik hasil uji cita rasa akan diuji alkalinitas abu, kadar sari kopi, dan kadar kafein. Pengujian yang dilakukan berdasarkan SNI tentang biji kopi dan bubuk kopi. Selanjutnya data yang diperoleh akan dilakukan pengujian ANOVA dengan selang kepercayaan 95%, uji lanjut BNT 5% untuk faktor, dan BNJ 5% untuk interaksi antar faktor. Berdasarkan penelitian, diperoleh hasil bahwa seluruh sampel green beans yang diperoleh telah memenuhi syarat mutu mengenai serangga hidup, biji berbau, dan kadar air yang terdapat pada SNI 01-2907-2008. Seluruh sampel roasted beans juga telah memenuhi persyaratan mutu I mengenai keadaan, kadar air, dan kadar abu yang terdapat pada SNI 01-3542-2004. Perlakuan lama fermentasi berpengaruh nyata terhadap kadar air green beans, kadar air roasted beans, dan kadar abu roasted beans, serta atribut acidity, body, dan balance. Sedangkan perlakuan tingkat penyangraian berpengaruh nyata terhadap kadar air dan abu roasted beans, serta atribut fragrance/aroma, flavor, acidity, aftertaste, body, balance, dan overall. Terdapat pula interaksi antar faktor yang nyata terhadap kadar air roasted beans, atribut flavor, acidity, dan body. Didapatkan hasil perlakuan terbaik berdasarkan rata-rata total skor cupping yaitu kopi wine arabika semeru 40 hari dengan tingkat penyangraian medium (200°C) dengan total skor 81,83 dimana skor ini telah dapat dikategorikan sebagai specialty coffee.

English Abstract

SUMMARY The market opportunities that exist both at home and abroad encourage higher coffee production in Indonesia. One of the areas that has the potential to produce coffee of good quality is the slopes of Mount Semeru. Semeru arabica coffee processed by natural methods does not yet have a score sufficient to be called specialty coffee according to the SCA (Specialty Coffee Association), so there is still a need to improve the quality of flavor. Improving the quality of flavor can be done by applying fermentation technology. One of the coffee fermentation methods is the wine method, which is a modification of the natural method. In the wine method, fermentation will be carried out over a longer period to produce a distinctive flavor resembling wine without eliminating the original taste of the coffee itself. However, an improper fermentation process can result in flavor defects. In addition, the roasting process carried out after fermentation can also affect the flavor of the coffee because the precursors formed during fermentation will be activated, and flavor formation occurs during roasting. So this research was conducted to find out the length of fermentation and the right roasting temperature carried out on semeru arabica coffee by testing the characteristics of coffee, both taste and physicochemical wine coffee. The research was conducted using the research method of factor-randomized block design with two factors. The first factor is the length of fermentation, which consists of four levels; the second factor is the level of roasting, which consists of three. The treatment combination will then be tested for physical quality, moisture content, ash content, and flavor. The best treatment of the taste test results will be tested for ash alkalinity, coffee juice content, and caffeine content. The tests are based on SNI on coffee beans and coffee powder. Furthermore, the data obtained will be subjected to ANOVA testing with a 95% confidence interval, 5% LSD further testing for factors, and 5% HSD for interactions between factors. Based on the research, the results showed that all green bean samples obtained met the quality requirements regarding live insects, odorless beans, and moisture content found in SNI 01-2907-2008. All roasted bean samples also fulfilled the quality requirements regarding the condition, moisture content, and ash content found in SNI 01-3542-2004. Fermentation duration treatment significantly affected the moisture content of green beans, the moisture content of roasted beans, and the ash content of roasted beans, as well as acidity, body, and balance attributes. While the roasting level treatment significantly affected the water and ash content of roasted beans, as well as the attributes of fragrance or aroma, flavor, acidity, aftertaste, body, balance, and overall, there was also a significant interaction between factors such as the moisture content of roasted beans, flavor attributes, acidity, and body. The best treatment results were obtained based on the average total cupping score, namely 40-day semeru arabica wine coffee with medium roasting level (200°C) with a total score of 81,83, where this score can be categorized as specialty coffee.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 052310
Uncontrolled Keywords: fermentasi, karakteristik kopi, kopi wine, penyangraian
Divisions: Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian > Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Depositing User: Unnamed user with username saputro
Date Deposited: 16 Jan 2024 00:31
Last Modified: 16 Jan 2024 00:31
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/210497
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