Pengaruh Penambahan Glukosa dan Natrium nitrat Terhadap Pertumbuhan Comamonas testosteroni dan Kemampuannya Dalam Mendegradasi Lignoselulosa Limbah Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit

Firdaus, Erfana and STP, MP., Ph.D, Irnia Nurika and MP, Dr. Ir. Nur Hidayat (2023) Pengaruh Penambahan Glukosa dan Natrium nitrat Terhadap Pertumbuhan Comamonas testosteroni dan Kemampuannya Dalam Mendegradasi Lignoselulosa Limbah Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Limbah tandan kosong kelapa sawit (TKKS) merupakan salah satu limbah pertanian yang memiliki kandungan lignoselulosa cukup tinggi dan berpotensi untuk dimanfaatkan menjadi berbagai bioproduk. Namun, struktur lignin pada lignoselulosa yang kompleks membuat pemanfaatan selulosa menjadi terhambat. Biomassa lignoselulosa perlu dilakukan pretreatment terlebih dahulu sebelum dikonversi ke bioproduk. Proses pretratment biologis dilakukan pada limbah TKKS dengan bakteri pendegradasi lignin Comamonas testosteroni. Bakteri C. testosteroni mampu menghasilkan enzim ligninolitik yaitu DyP-type peroxidase dan Multicopper oxidase (MCO) yang berperan dalam mendegradasi lignin. Proses pretreatment oleh bakteri perlu dioptimalkan agar dapat berjalan dengan baik, salah satunya dengan mengoptimalkan faktor pertumbuhan bakteri seperti sumber karbon dan sumber nitrogen. Sumber nutrisi berupa karbon dan nitrogen merupakan komponen utama dalam pertumbuhan sel bakteri. Selain pertumbuhan bakteri yang baik, sumber karbon dan nitrogen juga mampu meningkatkan aktivitas enzim pada bakteri. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan sumber karbon glukosa dan sumber nitrogen Natrium nitrat terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri C. testosteroni pada limbah TKKS serta bagaimanana kemampuannya dalam mendegradasi ligninoselulosa limbah TKKS. Rancangan percobaan yang digunakan pada penelitian ini yaitu Rancangan Tersarang yang terdiri dari faktor A yang merepresentasikan penambahan sumber karbon glukosa dan sumber nitrogen Natrium nitrat, serta faktor B yang merepresentasikan lama waktu pretreatment (jam) yang tersarang pada faktor A. Terdapat 6 macam perlakuan (faktor A) pada rancangan percobaan yaitu berupa komposisi tiap botol sampel antara lain TKKS untreated, TKKS treated dengan C. testosteroni, TKKS treated dengan C. testosteroni + 2,5% glukosa, TKKS treated dengan C. testosteroni + 0,1% Natrium nitrat, TKKS pretreated dengan C. testosteroni + 2,5% glukosa + 0,1% Natrium nitrat, dan TKKS pretreated dengan C. testosteroni + 5% glukosa + 0,2% Natrium nitrat. Keenam perlakuan dilakukan pengulangan sebanyak 3 kali. Terdapat 29 waktu inkubasi sampel (faktor B) dengan rentang waktu inkubasi adalah 6 jam selama 7 hari (186 jam). Parameter yang diuji antara lain pertumbuhan bakteri dengan OD, Total Gula Reduksi (TGR), Total Soluble Phenol (TSP), Weight loss, kadar lignoselulosa, dan pH. Seluruh data yang telah diperoleh selanjutnya dianalisis menggunakan aplikasi SPSS dengan metode Two-Way ANOVA dan Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). Analisis ANOVA menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan bakteri C. testosteroni dengan penambahan sumber karbon glukosa dan sumber nitrogen natrium nitrat, terbukti berbeda nyata terhadap semua parameter pertumbuhan dan kemampuan degradasi lignoselulosa TKKS, dengan nilai signifikansi <0,05. Uji lanjut DMRT membuktikan adanya perbedaan nyata antar setiap perlakuan dengan serta waktu inkubasi. Perlakuan A6 yaitu TKKS pretrated dengan C. testosteroni + 5% Glukosa + 0,2% Natrium Nitrat menghasilkan nilai sebagai pelakuan terbaik pada semua parameter antara lain nilai OD, TSP, TGR, susut berat, penurunan kadar lignin, dan penurunan pH. Nilai OD minimal (0,600) yang diharapkan dari perlakuan A6 adalah setelah waktu inkubasi 8,8 jam. Kemampuan degradasi bakteri C. testosteroni dalam mendegradasi lignin terlihat dari rata-rata nilai TSP tertinggi (A6) sebesar 0,163 mg/g, rata-rata nilai TGR tertinggi sebesar 8,313 mg/g, % susut berat sebesar 79,12%, dan lignin rmoval sebesar 25,127%. Hal tersebut membuktikan bahwa penambahan glukosa dan natrium nitrat mampu meningkatkan pertumbuhan bakteri C. testosteroni dan kemampuannya dalam mendegradasi lignoselulosa limbah TKKS.

English Abstract

Oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) is an agricultural waste that has a high lignocellulosic content and has the potential to be used as a variety of bioproducts. However, the complex structure of lignin in lignocellulosic hinders the utilization of cellulose. Lignocellulosic biomass needs to be pretreated before being converted to bioproducts. The biological treatment process was carried out on OPEFB waste with the lignin degrading bacteria Comamonas testosteroni. C. testosteroni bacteria are capable of producing ligninolytic enzymes, namely DyP-type peroxidase and Multicopper oxidase (MCO) which play a role in degrading lignin. The pretreatment process by bacteria needs to be optimized so that it can run well, one of which is by optimizing bacterial growth factors such as carbon sources and nitrogen sources. Sources of nutrients in the form of carbon and nitrogen are the main components in the growth of bacterial cells. In addition to good bacterial growth, carbon and nitrogen sources are also able to increase enzyme activity in bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding a carbon source of glucose and a nitrogen source of sodium nitrate on the growth of C. testosteroni bacteria in OPEFB waste and its ability to degrade ligninocellulosic OPEFB waste. The experimental design used in this study was a nested design consisting of factor A which represented the addition of a carbon glucose source and a nitrogen source of sodium nitrate, and factor B which represented the length of pretreatment time (hours) nested in factor A. There were 6 kinds of treatments (factor A) in the experimental design, which is the composition of each sample bottle, including untreated OPEFB, OPEFB treated with C. testosteroni, OPEFB treated with C. testosteroni + 2.5% glucose, OPEFB treated with C. testosteroni + 0.1% sodium nitrate, OPEFB pretreated with C. testosteroni + 2.5% glucose + 0.1% sodium nitrate, and OPEFB pretreated with C. testosteroni + 5% glucose + 0.2% sodium nitrate. The six treatments were repeated 3 times. There were 29 sample incubation times (factor B) with an incubation time range of 6 hours for 7 days (186 hours). Parameters tested included bacterial growth with OD, Total Reducing Sugar (TGR), Total Soluble Phenol (TSP), Weight loss, lignocellulosic content, and pH. All data that has been obtained is then analyzed using the SPSS application with the Two-Way ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) methods. ANOVA analysis showed that the use of C. testosteroni bacteria with the addition of a carbon source of glucose and a nitrogen source of sodium nitrate, proved significantly different for all growth parameters and ability to degrade lignocellulosic OPEFB, with a significance value of <0.05. The DMRT follow-up test proved that there were significant differences between each treatment and the incubation time. Treatment A6, which is OPEFB pretreated with C. testosteroni + 5% Glucose + 0.2% Sodium Nitrate, scored as the best treatment for all parameters including OD, TSP, TGR, weight loss, decreased lignin levels, and decreased pH. The minimum OD value (0.600) expected from the A6 treatment is after an incubation time of 8.8 hours. The degradation ability of C. testosterone bacteria in degrading lignin can be seen from the highest average TSP value (A6) of 0.163 mg/g, the highest average TGR value of 8.313 mg/g, % weight loss of 79.12%, and lignin rmoval of 25.127%. This proves that the addition of glucose and sodium nitrate can increase the growth of C. testosteroni bacteria and their ability to degrade lignocellulosic OPEFB waste.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0523100025
Uncontrolled Keywords: Comamonas testosteroni, Pretreatment Biologis, TKKS, Biological Pretreatment, Comamonas testosteroni, OPEFB
Subjects: 300 Social sciences > 338 Production > 338.1 Agriculture > 338.16 Production efficiency
Divisions: Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian > Teknologi Industri Pertanian
Depositing User: soegeng sugeng
Date Deposited: 17 May 2023 01:24
Last Modified: 17 May 2023 01:24
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/199724
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