Pengaruh Kondisi Habitat Perkebunan Kakao Dan Kelimpahan Semut Predator Terhadap Intensitas Serangan Penggerek Buah Kakao (Conopomorpha Cramerella (Snellen))

Rafid, Emha Dwi Rifqi and Dr. Akhmad Rizali,, SP., M.Si. (2020) Pengaruh Kondisi Habitat Perkebunan Kakao Dan Kelimpahan Semut Predator Terhadap Intensitas Serangan Penggerek Buah Kakao (Conopomorpha Cramerella (Snellen)). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Komoditas perkebunan penting dalam perekonomian di Indonesia adalah komoditas kakao (Theobroma cacao L.). Sejak tahun 1980 luas areal lahan kakao terus mengalami peningkatan. Luas areal pertanaman kakao di Indonesia pada tahun 2018 mencapai 1,66 juta hektar. Akan tetapi peningkatan luas areal lahan kakao tidak diimbangi dengan peningkatan produktivitas kakao. Sejak tahun 2006 produktivitas kakao di Indonesia berfluktuatif dan cenderung menurun. Produktivitas kakao di Indonesia pada tahun 2014-2018 mengalami penurunan sebesar 19,65% yaitu 143,16 ribu ton dari 728,4 ribu ton. Penurunan produktivitas kakao disebabkan dari berbagai macam faktor diantaranya perubahan kondisi lahan, umur tanaman, serangan hama dan penyakit. Salah satu hama penting pada tanaman kakao adalah penggerek buah kakao (PBK), Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen). Di Indonesia presentase serangan PBK dilaporkan dapat mencapai 90%. Pengendalian PBK yang dilakukan para petani dilapang yaitu menggunakan pengendalian secara konvensional dengan penggunaan pestisida kimia intensif sehingga menyebabkan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan dan juga matinya musuh alami. Oleh karena itu diperlukan upaya untuk pengendalian PBK melalui pengelolaan agroekosistem kakao yang ramah lingkungan. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh kondisi habitat perkebunan kakao dan kelimpahan semut predator terhadap intensitas serangan PBK. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Januari–Maret 2020 pada 12 perkebunan kakao di lima kabupaten di Jawa Timur. Penentuan lokasi menggunakan metode expert judgement sampling dan snowball sampling dengan kriteria umur tanaman 3–10 tahun, jarak antar lokasi minimal 2 km, dan memiliki lebih dari 100 tanaman. Setiap lokasi ditentukan plot pengamatan berukuran 10 pohon x 10 pohon (berkisar 1200 m2) dengan letak tiap plot berjarak minimal 1 pohon dari tepi lahan. Di setiap plot, pengamatan gejala serangan PBK dilakukan setiap bulan selama tiga bulan dengan mengamati gejala serangan PBK pada buah. Pengamatan semut predator dilakukan dengan mengambil secara langsung pada 100 tanaman. Kondisi habitat yang digunakan sebagai faktor yaitu umur tanaman, kerapatan tutupan kanopi, vegetasi, suhu, dan kelembaban. Pengaruh perbedaan lokasi, umur tanaman, tutupan kanopi dengan intensitas serangan PBK dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam. Hubungan umur tanaman, keanekaragaman vegetasi dan kelimpahan predator dengan intensitas serangan PBK dianalisis menggunakan analisis regresi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh kondisi habitat perkebunan kakao dan kelimpahan semut predator terhadap intensitas serangan PBK. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intensitas serangan PBK berdasarkan buah yang terserang berkisar 0,01% - 0,12% per plot (0,06% - 1,01% per ha) dan berdasarkan pohon berkisar 1% - 48% per plot (0,12% - 5,76% per ha). Intensitas serangan PBK tertinggi didapatkan pada lokasi perkebunan kakao di Sukodono dan terendah pada lokasi perkebunan kakao di AFD Babadan. Kondisi habitat yang mempengaruhi intensitas serangan PBK yaitu umur tanaman, kerapatan ii tutupan kanopi, dan sanitasi, sedangkan varietas, aplikasi pestisida dan keanekaragaman vegetasi tidak mempengaruhi intensitas serangan PBK. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa pada umur tanaman muda, kerapatan tutupan kanopi yang sedang dan rapat, serta tanpa sanitasi dan tanpa aplikasi pestisida memiliki intensitas serangan PBK yang lebih tinggi. Hasil analisis regresi, umur tanaman berkorelasi negatif dengan intensitas serangan PBK yaitu semakin tua umur tanaman semakin rendah intensitas serangan PBK, sedangkan keanekaragaman vegetasi tidak berkorelasi dengan intensitas serangan PBK. Terdapat empat jenis semut predator yang ditemukan pada 12 perkebunan kakao yaitu Dolichoderus thoracicus, Technomyrmex albipes, Anoplolepis gracilipes, dan Oecophylla smaragdina. Kelimpahan semut predator khususnya O. smaragdina mempengaruhi intensitas serangan PBK. Kelimpahan semut predator O. smaragdina berkorelasi negatif dengan intensitas serangan PBK yaitu semakin tinggi kelimpahan O. smaragdina maka semakin rendah intensitas serangan PBK, sedangkan semut lainnya tidak berkorelasi dengan intensitas serangan PBK. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa umur tanaman, kerapatan tutupan kanopi, sanitasi, dan kelimpahan O. smaragdina mempengaruhi intensitas serangan PBK

English Abstract

An important plantation commodity in the economy in Indonesia is cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Since 1980 the total area of cacao land has continued to increase. The total area of cacao growing in Indonesia in 2018 will reach 1,66 million hectares. However, the increase in the area of cacao is not offset by an increase in cacao productivity. Since 2006 cacao productivity in Indonesia has fluctuated and tends to decline. Cacao productivity in Indonesia in 2014-2018 decreased by 19,65%, 143,16 thousand tons from 728,4 thousand tons. The decline in cacao productivity is due to various factors including changes in land conditions, plant age, pest and disease attacks. One of the important pests in cacao plant is cacao pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella (Snellen). In Indonesia, the intensity of CPB attacks is reported to reach 90%. Control of CPB is carried out by farmers in the field that is using conventional control with the use of intensive chemical pesticides that cause negative impacts on the environment and also the death of natural enemies. Therefore, efforts are needed to control CPB through environmentally friendly management of cacao agroecosystems. This research was conducted in January-March 2020 on 12 cacao plantations in five districts in East Java. Determination of location using expert judgment and snowball sampling methods with criteria for plant age of 3-10 years, the distance between locations is at least 2 km, and has more than 100 plants. Each location was determined by an observation plot measuring 10 trees x 10 trees (about 1200 m2) with each plot located at least 1 tree from the edge of the land. In each plot, observing the symptoms of a CPB attack every month for three months by observing the symptoms of a CPB attack on fruit. Observation of predatory ants was done by taking directly on 100 plants that are observed. Habitat conditions that were used as factors were plant age, canopy cover density, vegetation, temperature, and humidity. The effect of differences in location, plant age, canopy cover with the intensity of the CPB attack were analyzed using analysis of variance. The relationship of plant age, vegetation diversity and predator abundance with the intensity of the CPB attack were analyzed using regression analysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of habitat conditions on cacao plantations and abundance of predator ants on the intensity of CPB attacks. The results showed that the intensity of CPB attacks based on attacked fruit ranged from 0.01% - 0.12% per plot (0.06% - 1.01% per ha) and based on attacked trees ranging from 1% - 48% per plot (0.12% - 5.76 % per ha). The highest intensity of CPB attacks was found at the location of cacao plantations in Sukodono and the lowest at the location of cacao plantations in AFD Babadan. Habitat conditions that was affected the intensity of CPB attacks are plant age, canopy cover density, and sanitation, while varieties, pesticide apllication and vegetation diversity did not affect by the intensity of CPB attacks. The results of the analysis of variance showed that at the age of young plants, the density of the canopy cover that was moderate and tight, and without sanitation and without iv pesticide apllication had a higher ability of CPB attacks. The results of the regression analysis, plant age was negatively correlated with the intensity of the CPB attack ie the older the age of the plant the lower the intensity of the CPB attack, while the diversity of vegetation does not correlate with the intensity of the CPB attack. There are four types of predator ants found in 12 cacao plantations, namely Dolichoderus thoracicus, Technomyrmex albipes, Anoplolepis gracilipes, and Oecophylla smaragdina. The abundance of predator ants, especially O. smaragdina was affects the intensity of CPB attacks. The abundance of O. smaragdina predator ants is negatively correlated with the intensity of CPB attacks, which is that the higher the abundance of O. smaragdina, the lower the intensity of CPB attacks, while other ants do not correlate with the intensity of CPB attacks. Based on the results of the study it can be concluded that plant age, canopy cover density, sanitation and O. smaragdina abundance influence the intensity of CPB attacks.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0520040040
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 30 Sep 2022 03:02
Last Modified: 30 Sep 2022 03:02
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/195213
[thumbnail of DALAM MASA EMBARGO] Text (DALAM MASA EMBARGO)
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