Eksplorasi Bakteri Indigenous Endofit Tanaman Kubis (Brassica Oleraceae) Organik Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Busuk Hitam

Santoso, Verisca Agil Winanda and Luqman QurataAini,, SP., M.Si., PhD (2021) Eksplorasi Bakteri Indigenous Endofit Tanaman Kubis (Brassica Oleraceae) Organik Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Busuk Hitam. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tanaman kubis merupakan tanaman sayuran yang banyak dikonsumsi masyarakat di Indonesia karena memiliki kandungan gizi yang tinggi. Kubis juga merupakan salah satu komoditas hortikultura penting dan penyumbang devisa tertinggi ketiga dari sayuran semusim di Indonesia. Namun poduksi kubis terus mengalami penurunan. Hal disebabkan oleh penyakit busuk hitam yang dapat menimbulkan kerusakan hingga 70%. Sejauh ini pengendalian kimia dengan pestisida sintetis yang dapat merusak lingkungan, keamanan pangan produk pertanian, dan kesehatan manusia paling banyak dilakukan untuk mengendalikan penyakit busuk hitam. Oleh karena itu pengendalian ramah lingkungan perlu dikembangkan. Salah satunya dengan menggunakan agen antagonis berupa bakteri endofit. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui potensi dan keragaman bakteri indigenous endofit kubis yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pengendalian hayati patogen X. campestris. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Penyakit Tumbuhan Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya pada bulan Desember 2019 sampai Agustus 2020. Penelitian ini terdiri dari beberapa tahapan yaitu: pengambilan sampel tanaman kubis organik, isolasi patogen tanaman X. campestris, Uji Patogenesitas, Eksplorasi dan seleksi bakteri endofit tanaman kubis, Uji antagonisme bakteri endofit, Karakterisasi bakteri endofit. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan yaitu Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan 6 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Perlakuan yang diuji meliputi kontrol positif streptomycin dan 5 isolat bakteri terpilih dari hasil seleksi antagonis. Selanjutnya, data hasil pengamatan dianalisis dengan sidik ragam dan uji lanjut menggunakan Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) dengan taraf signifikansi 5% pada software SPSS. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa patogen hasil isolasi sesuai dengan karakteristik bakteri patogen X. campestris. Isolasi bakteri endofit pada daun kubis diperoleh 119 isolat dengan karakteristik koloni yang berbeda. Berdasarkan hasil seleksi diperoleh 13 isolat dapat menghasilkan zona hambat. Kemudian 5 isolat terpilih dilakukan uji antagonis dengan bakteri patogen. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa kelima isolat bakteri antagonis berpengaruh nyata dalam menghambat X. campestris dibandingkan dengan kontrol streptomycin. Bakteri antagonis isolat E33 merupakan bakteri genus Corynebacterium sp., isolat E79 merupakan bakteri genus Erwinia sp., dan isolat E95, E102, E109 merupakan bakteri genus Pseudomonas sp. Isolat bakteri genus Pseudomonas sp. memiliki daya hambat terbaik dibandingkan dengan isolat lainnya

English Abstract

Cabbage is a vegetable crop that is widely consumed by people in Indonesia because it has a high nutritional content. Cabbage is also one of the important horticultural commodities and the third highest foreign exchange earner from seasonal vegetables in Indonesia. However, cabbage production continues to decline. This is caused by black rot which can cause damage up to 70%. So far, chemical control with synthetic pesticides that can damage the environment, food safety for agricultural products, and human health is mostly done to control black rot. Therefore, environmentally friendly controls need to be developed. One of them is by using an antagonistic agent in the form of endophytic bacteria. This research was conducted to determine the potential and diversity of indigenous endophytic bacteria of cabbage which can be used as biological control for pathogenic X. campestris. The research was conducted at the Plant Disease Laboratory, Department of Pests and Plant Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University from December 2019 to August 2020. This research consisted of several stages, namely: taking organic cabbage plant samples, isolating plant pathogens X. campestris, Pathogenicity Test, Exploration and selection endophytic bacteria of cabbage plant, test for antagonism of endophytic bacteria, characterization of endophytic bacteria. The research design used was a completely randomized design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments tested included positive control for streptomycin and 5 selected bacterial isolates from the antagonist selection results. Furthermore, the data from the observations were analyzed using variance and further tests using the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) with a significance level of 5% in the SPSS software. The results of the observations indicated that the pathogen isolated in accordance with the characteristics of the X. campestris pathogen. The isolation of endophytic bacteria on cabbage leaves obtained 119 isolates with different colony characteristics. Based on the selection results, 13 isolates can produce inhibition zones. Then the 5 selected isolates were tested for antagonism with pathogenic bacteria. The results of the analysis of variance showed that the five antagonistic bacterial isolates had a significant effect in inhibiting X. campestris compared to the control streptomycin. The antagonistic bacteria isolate E33 is a bacterium of the genus Corynebacterium sp., Isolate E79 is a bacterium of the genus Erwinia sp., and isolates E95, E102, E109 are bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas sp. Isolate of the genus Pseudomonas sp. has the best inhibition compared to other isolates.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0520040012
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2022 07:05
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2022 07:05
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/194981
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