Eksplorasi Bakteri Rizosfer Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.) Organik Sebagai Pengendali Penyakit Fusarium Oxysporum

Simanjuntak, Claudya Santa Clara and Prof. Dr. Ir. Abdul Latief Abadi,, MS and Restu Rizkyta Kusuma,, S.P., M.P., M.Sc. (2020) Eksplorasi Bakteri Rizosfer Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.) Organik Sebagai Pengendali Penyakit Fusarium Oxysporum. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Bawang merah merupakan salah satu tanaman hortikultura di Indonesia yang sangat penting karena mempunyai banyak manfaat dan kegunaan, diantaranya untuk konsumsi dan kesehatan pada masyarakat. Produktivitas bawang merah nasional tahun 2015, 2016, dan 2017 berturut turut sebanyak 10,06ton/ha, 9,67ton/ha dan 9,31ton/ha. Menurunnya produktivitas bawang merah diakibatkan karena beberapa faktor, salah satunya yaitu penyakit layu fusarium/moler yang disebabkan oleh jamur Fusarium oxyosporum dan menimbulkan kehilangan hasil sampai 50%. Petani pada saat ini masih sering menggunakan fungisida untuk mengendalikan penyakit layu fusarium, akan tetapi penggunaan fungisida secara terus menerus memberikan dampak negatif bagi lingkungan. Pemanfaatan bakteri merupakan salah satu alternatif yang bisa digunakan untuk mengendalikan penyakit layu fusarium dari tanaman bawang merah. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan mulai bulan Desember 2019 sampai Agustus 2020 di Laboratorium Penyakit Tumbuhan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. Pelaksanaan penelitian ini terdiri dari beberapa tahapan antara lain yaitu, Eksplorasi dan seleksi bakteri asal rizosfer bawang merah organik, Pembuatan media PDA dan NA, uji patogenitas, seleksi dan uji antagonis bakteri rizosfer tanaman bawang merah in vitro, uji reaksi hipersensitif dan karakterisasi bakteri rizosfer tanaman bawang merah. Hasil pengamatan menunjukan bahwa jamur patogen hasil isolasi sesuai dengan karakteristik jamur patogen Fusarium oxyosporum. Hasil isolasi bakteri diperoleh 40 isolat dari rizosfer tanaman bawang merah organik, 18 diantaranya bersifat antagonis dan 5 isolat bakteri dengan daya hambat terbaik dipilih untuk diuji lanjut. Semua perlakuan isolat bakteri antagonis berhasil menghambat pertumbuhan F. oxysporum yang berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan fungisida. Besarnya persentasi daya hambat bakteri antagonis terhadap jamur patogen pertumbuhan F. oxysporum mengakibatkan kecilnya luas koloni jamur patogen. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukan bahwa bakteri antagonis memiliki pengaruh nyata terhadap jamur patogen pertumbuhan F. oxysporum secara in vitro jika dibandingkan dengan kontrol (medium yang hanya diinokulasi dengan jamur patogen tanpa bakteri antagonis). Hasil karakterisasi 5 isolat bakteri menunjukkan karakteristik yang berbeda-beda. Isolat G11, G12 dan G15 merupakan bakteri dari genus Pseudomonas, isolat G19 merupakan bakteri dari genus Erwinia dan isolat G21 merupakan bakteri dari genus Corynebacterium

English Abstract

Shallot is one of the horticultural plants in Indonesia which is very important because it has many benefits and uses, including for consumption and health in the community. The national shallot productivity in 2015, 2016 and 2017 was 10.06 ton / ha, 9.67ton / ha and 9.31ton / ha respectively. The reduced productivity of shallots is caused by several factors, one of which is fusarium wilt disease which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxyosporum and causes yield loss of up to 50%. Farmers currently still use fungicides to control fusarium wilt, however, continuous use of fungicides has a negative impact on the environment. Utilization of bacteria is an alternative that can be used to control fusarium wilt from shallot plants. This study aims to determine the potential of rhizosphere bacteria derived from shallot plants to inhibit the development of fusarium wilt disease in vitro. This research was conducted from December 2019 to August 2020 at the Plant Disease Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang. The implementation of this research consisted of several stages, namely, exploration and selection of bacteria from the organic onion rhizosphere, preparation of PDA and NA media, pathogenicity testing, selection and antagonist test of onion plant rhizosphere bacteria in vitro, hypersensitive reaction test and characterization of plant rhizosphere bacteria shallot. The results showed that the pathogenic fungi isolated according to the characteristics of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxyosporum. The results of bacterial isolation obtained 40 isolates from the rhizosphere of organic shallot plants, 18 of which were antagonistic and 5 bacterial isolates with the best inhibition were selected for further testing. All treatments of antagonistic bacterial isolates succeeded in inhibiting the growth of F. oxysporum, which was significantly different from the fungicide treatment. The large percentage of inhibitory power of antagonistic bacteria against the growth pathogenic fungi of F. oxysporum resulted in a small area of pathogenic fungal colonies. The results of the analysis of variance showed that the antagonistic bacteria had a significant effect on the pathogenic fungus of F. oxysporum growth in vitro when compared to the control (medium that was only inoculated with pathogenic fungi without antagonistic bacteria). The results of characterization of 5 bacterial isolates showed different characteristics. Isolates G11, G12 and G15 are bacteria from the genus Pseudomonas, isolate G19 is a bacterium from the genus Erwinia and isolate G21 is a bacterium from the genus Corynebacterium.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0520040003
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2022 02:20
Last Modified: 27 Sep 2022 02:20
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/194917
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