Pengaruh Penerapan Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu Melalui Rekayasa Ekologi Pada Tebu Ratun Terhadap Parasitoid Larva Penggerek Batang Tebu (Saccharum Officinarum L.)

Ummah, Shafira Zahrotul and Dr. Ir. Gatot Mudjiono s, - and Dr. Agr. Sc. Hagus Tarno,, SP., MP. (2020) Pengaruh Penerapan Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu Melalui Rekayasa Ekologi Pada Tebu Ratun Terhadap Parasitoid Larva Penggerek Batang Tebu (Saccharum Officinarum L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tanaman Tebu (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poales: Poaceae) termasuk komoditas penting di Indonesia sebagai bahan baku penghasil gula. Produksi tebu di Indonesia selalu mengalami peningkatan pada 2017 - 2019 sebesar 2.121.671, 2.174.400, dan 2.450.000 ton. Namun, kebutuhan gula nasional belum tercukupi oleh produksi tebu. Tahun 2019 kebutuhan gula nasional sebesar 5,8 juta ton, sedangkan produksinya hanya 2,2 juta ton. Kendala penanaman tebu yaitu penerapan ratun yang lebih dari 3 kali dan serangan Penggerek Batang Tebu (PBT). PBT merupakan hama utama yang menurunkan volume nira tebu sebesar 52 - 73%. Kebiasaan petani membakar sisa tanaman tebu saat panen dapat mengurangi populasi musuh alami dari PBT seperti parasitoid. Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu (PHT) melalui rekayasa ekologi, berpotensi mengendalikan hama dengan memanipulasi agroekosistem untuk mengoptimalkan pengendalian hayati terhadap hama. Agens pengendali hayati yang berpotensi mengendalikan penggerek batang tebu yaitu parasitoid larva. Parasitoid larva lebih efisien sebagai pengendali hama secara hayati karena tidak menyebabkan resistensi dan resurgensi pada hama dan tepat sasaran pada larva. Oleh karena itu, rekayasa ekologi pada tanaman tebu perlu diterapkan sebagai upaya dalam mengurangi populasi penggerek batang tebu. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penerapan PHT pada pertanaman tebu terhadap populasi dan intensitas PBT dan parasitoid larvanya. Penelitian dilaksanakan di kebun percobaan dan di Laboratorium Entomologi dan Fitopatologi, Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat, Karangploso, Kabupaten Malang, Jawa Timur. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Desember hingga Maret 2020. Perlakuan yang diberikan adalah penerapan PHT melalui rekayasa ekologi pada tebu ratun serta perlakuan penanaman tebu secara konvensional. Penelitian dilakukan dengan membandingkan perlakuan PHT dan konvensional pada lahan seluas 0,6 ha menggunakan metode destruktif sampel yang diulang sebanyak 2 kali. Pada lahan PHT dan konvensional masing-masing ditetapkan 4 juring. Setiap juring diambil 2 sampel rumpun tebu yang bergejala. Pengamatan dilakukan sebanyak 12 kali selama 3 bulan dengan dilakukan pengacakan juring untuk menentukan juring yang diamati setiap minggunya. Variabel yang diamati yaitu jumlah dan jenis larva PBT, intensitas serangan PBT, jumlah, jenis, dan tingkat parasitasi parasitoid larva PBT. Analisa data dilakukan dengan menggunakan Uji t Wilcoxon Signed Rank menggunakan aplikasi SPSS versi 25. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan penerapan PHT dan konvensional tidak berbeda nyata terhadap populasi dan intensitas serangan PBT serta populasi parasitoid larva PBT. Rerata populasi larva PBT pada perlakuan PHT sebesar 2,20 sedangkan pada konvensional sebesar 2,79. Rerata intensitas serangan penggerek batang pada PHT 6,57 dan pada lahan konvensional 7,08. Parasitoid larva PBT pada kedua perlakuan tidak ditemukan, tetapi ditemukan parasitoid lain sebagai parasitoid larva dan pupa.

English Abstract

Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poales: Poaceae) is an important commodity in Indonesia as a raw material for producing sugar. Sugarcane production in Indonesia has always increased in 2017 - 2019 amounting to 2.121.671, 2.174.400 and 2.450.000 tonnes. However, the national sugar demand has not been fulfilled by sugarcane production. In 2019, the national demand for sugar is 5,8 million tons, while production is only 2,2 million tons. The problems of cane cultivation are the application of ratoon more than 3 times and the attack of the sugar cane stem borer (PBT). PBT is the main pest that reduces sugarcane production by 52 - 73%. Farmers habit of burning sugarcane crop residues at harvest can reduce the population of natural enemies of PBT such as parasitoids. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) through ecological engineering, has the potential to control pests by manipulating agroecosystems to optimize biological control of pests. Biological controlling agent that has the potential to control sugarcane borer is larvae parasitoids. Larval parasitoids are more efficient as biological pest control because they do not cause resistance and resurgence to pests and are right on target for larvae. Therefore, ecological engineering in sugarcane needs to be implemented as an effort to reduce the population of sugarcane stem borer. This study aims to determine the effect of IPM application on sugarcane cultivation on population and intensity of PBT and larvae parasitoids. This research employed in experimental garden and Entomology and Phytopathology Laboratory, Plant Research Center Sweeteness and Fiber, Karangploso, Malang, East Java. The research was conducted in December until March 2020. This research given is the application of IPM through ecological engineering on sugarcane ratoon and conventional sugarcane cultivation. This research is comparing between IPM and conventional treatment on 0,6 ha area using destructive methods and repeated 2 times. On IPM and conventional each has 4 segment. Each segment, 2 samples of symptomatic sugarcane were taken. Observation were made 12 times over 3 months with random plot to determine plot that be observed every week. The variables in this research were the amount and types of sugarcane borer, intensity of sugarcane borer attack, amount, types, and parasitoid levels of sugarcane borer larvae. The data analysis used Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with SPSS application version 25. The results showed that the application of IPM and conventional treatments were not significantly different to the population and intensity of PBT attacks and the parasitoid population of PBT larvae. The average population of PBT larvae in IPM treatment was 2,20 while in conventional it was 2,79. The mean intensity of stem borer attack on IPM was 6,57 and on conventional land was 7,08. PBT larvae parasitoids in both treatments were not found, but another parasitoid was found as larval parasitoid and puparium parasitoid

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0520040116
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 01 Aug 2022 02:32
Last Modified: 01 Aug 2022 02:32
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/192907
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