Eksplorasi Jamur Rizosfer Antagonis Terhadap Rhizoctonia Solani Pada Tanaman Kacang Hijau (Vigna Radiata)

Matondang, Sallygresya Theodora Dwifelita and Luqman Qurata Aini,, SP., M. Si., Ph.D (2021) Eksplorasi Jamur Rizosfer Antagonis Terhadap Rhizoctonia Solani Pada Tanaman Kacang Hijau (Vigna Radiata). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tanaman kacang hijau (Vigna radiata) merupakan salah satu komoditas yang banyak dibudidayakan karena dapat diolah menjadi berbagai olahan. Salah satu penyakit yang menyerang tanaman kacang hijau adalah penyakit busuk akar yang disebabkan oleh Rhizoctonia solani. Pengendalian penyakit tanaman dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan agen hayati yaitu jamur antagonis. Salah satu lokasi habitat jamur antagonis adalah pada daerah rizosfer. Jamur rizosfer memiliki kemampuan antagonis terhadap patogen penyebab penyakit tanaman. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis jamur rizosfer yang bersifat antagonis terhadap Rhizoctonia solani dan perbedaan kemampuan antagonisme. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Maret 2021 sampai dengan Oktober 2021. Sampel tanah diambil pada 6 lahan kacang hijau pada 3 daerah di Kabupaten Malang. Penelitian Laboratorium dilakukan di Laboratorium Penyakit Tumbuhan 3 Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya. Pengambilan sampel tanah dilakukan dengan mengambil sampel tanah komposit sebanyak 50 gram pada 5 titik pada setiap lahan. Penelitian di laboratorium mencakup sterilisasi alat, pembuatan media PDA, isolasi jamur rizosfer, purifikasi, identifikasi dan uji antagonis jamur rizosfer terhadap patogen R. solani. Identifikasi dilakukan menggunakan bantuan buku Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi oleh Barnett and Hunter (1999) dan Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi: Morphologies of Cultures Fungi and Key to Species Third Edition oleh Tsuneo Watanabe (2010). Rancangan yang digunakan adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Analisis data dilakukan dengan analisis ragam (Anova) apabila berbeda nyata maka akan dilanjutkan uji DMRT pada aplikasi SPSS. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, didapatkan 38 isolat dengan kenampakan makroskopis yang berbeda dari 6 lahan kacang hijau di 3 daerah Kabupaten Malang. Hasil uji antagonis didapatkan persentase daya hambat hari ke 7 berkisar antara 3,33% sampai dengan 96,67%. Terdapat 15 isolat jamur yang memiliki daya hambat lebih dari 50% dan 9 diantaranya memiliki daya hambat lebih dari 70%. Isolat yang memiliki daya hambat lebih dari 50% kemudian di identifikasi. Hasil identifikasi didapatkan 7 genus jamur yang memiliki daya hambat lebih dari 50%. Genus tersebut yaitu Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Chrysonilia, Mortierella, Gliocladium, Penicillium, dan Acremonium. Kemampuan antagonisme jamur yang berbeda-beda diakibatkan karena beberapa hal yaitu kompetisi dan antibiosis. Terdapat jamur yang tumbuh dengan sangat cepat, sehingga terjadi kompetisi ruang dan makanan antara jamur rizosfer dengan R. solani. Selain itu, terdapat isolat yang mengeluarkan eksudat sehingga terlihat zona inhibisi yang tidak dapat ditumbuhi oleh patogen R. solani.

English Abstract

Mung bean (Vigna radiata) is one of the commodities that is widely cultivated because it can be processed into various product. One of the diseases that attack mung bean is root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Plant disease control can be done by using biological agents, namely antagonistic fungi. One of the antagonistic fungi habitat locations is in the rhizosphere area. Rhizosphere fungi have antagonistic ability against plant disease-causing pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of rhizosphere fungi that were antagonistic to Rhizoctonia solani and the differences in antagonism abilities. The research was conducted from March 2021 to October 2021. Soil samples was collected from 6 Mung Bean fields in 3 areas in Malang Regency. Laboratory research is carried out at the Plant Disease Laboratory 3, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya. Soil sample was collected by taking 50 grams of composite soil samples at 5 points on each land. Research in the laboratory includes sterilization of equipment, manufacture of PDA media, isolation of rhizosphere fungi, purification, identification and testing of rhizosphere fungi antagonists against pathogens R. solani. Identification was carried out using the book Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi by Barnett and Hunter (1999) and Pictorial Atlas of Soil and Seed Fungi: Morphologies of Cultures Fungi and Key to Species Third Edition by Tsuneo Watanabe (2010). The design used is Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Data analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (Anova) if it was significantly different, the DMRT test would be continued on the SPSS application. Based on the results of the study, there were 38 isolates with different macroscopic appearance from 6 Mung Bean fields in 3 areas of Malang Regency. The results of the antagonist test showed that the percentage of inhibition on day 7 ranged from 3.33% to 96.67%. There were 15 isolates of fungi that had more than 50% inhibition and 9 of them had more than 70% inhibition. Isolates that have inhibition of more than 50% were then identified. The identification results obtained 7 genera of fungi that have more than 50% inhibitory power. The genera are Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Chrysonilia, Mortierella, Gliocladium, Penicillium, and Acremonium. The different antagonistic abilities of fungi are caused by several things, namely competition and antibiosis. There are fungi that grow rapidly, so there is competition for space and food between the rhizosphere fungi and R. solani. In addition, there were isolates that released exudate so that an inhibition zone was seen that could not be grown by the pathogen R. solani.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0521040274
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 29 Jul 2022 07:17
Last Modified: 29 Jul 2022 07:17
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/192897
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