Uji Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Kemangi (Ocimum Bacilicum), Daun Kersen (Muntingia Calabura) Dan Kombinasinya Terhadap Penyakit Bercak Cokelat (Alternaria Sp.) Pada Tomat

Afifah, Rita Nur and Dr. Ir. Mintarto Martosudiro,, MS (2021) Uji Efektivitas Ekstrak Daun Kemangi (Ocimum Bacilicum), Daun Kersen (Muntingia Calabura) Dan Kombinasinya Terhadap Penyakit Bercak Cokelat (Alternaria Sp.) Pada Tomat. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Penyakit pada tanaman budidaya tomat dapat disebabkan oleh jamur, bakteri maupun virus. Pada budidaya tomat penyakit penting yang disebabkan oleh jamur salah satunya adalah penyakit bercak cokelat oleh jamur Alternaria sp.. Patogen Alternaria sp. dapat menurunkan produktivitas tanaman sebesar 5-78%, menurunkan nilai ekonomis dan estetika buah tomat. Pengendalian menggunakan fungisida kimia memiliki residu terhadap lingkungan, untuk mengurangi residu terdapat alternatif dengan menggunakan fungisida nabati asal tumbuhan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan ekstrak daun kemangi, daun kersen dan kombinasinya dalam menghambat pertumbuhan jamur Alternaria sp. pada buah tomat dan mengetahui perbandingan yang efektif untuk menghambat jamur Alternaria sp. secara in vitro dan in vivo pada buah tomat. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Januari 2020 hingga September 2020, di Laboratorium Toksikologi Pestisida dan Laboratorium Penyakit Tumbuhan, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya serta Uji Fitokimia di Materia Medica Batu.Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) 6 perlakuan dan diulang 4 kali. Perlakuan yang diberikan antara lain kontrol, penambahan ekstrak kemangi, ekstrak kersen, kemangi : kersen (2:1), kemangi : kersen (1:2), dan kemangi : kersen (1:1) pada konsentrasi 50.000 ppm. Pada pengujian in vitro menggunakan metode Food poison technique dengan parameter yang diamati yaitu diameter koloni, dan berat kering miselium. Sedangkan pada pengujian in vivo dengan merendam buah tomat pada larutan ekstrak kemudian diinfeksi dengan jamur Alternaria sp., parameter yang diamati adalah diameter gejala, dan perkecambahan konidia. Data hasil pengamatan dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam, jika terjadi data berbeda nyata maka dilakukan uji lanjut Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT) pada taraf 5%. Seluruh data dianalisis menggunakan perangkat lunak MS. Excel. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan penambahan ekstrak tunggal kemangi ekstrak kersen dan kombinasi kemangi : kersen (1:1) memiliki daya hambat terhadap jamur Alternaria sp. yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan kombinasi kemangi : kersen (2:1) dan kombinasi kemangi : kersen (1:2) baik secara in vitro maupun in vivo. Penghambatan yang dihasilkan secara in vitro pada perlakuan ekstrak kemangi, ekstrak kersen, dan kombinasi kemangi : kersen (1:1) adalah 72,71%, 57,02% dan 51,15%. Sedangkan secara in vivo yaitu 1,01 cm, 1,09 cm dan 1,14 cm.

English Abstract

Disease in tomato cultivation can be caused by fungi, bacteria or viruses. In tomato cultivation has important desease caused by fungi, one of them is Brown Spot Desease by the fungus pathogen Alternaria sp.. Pathogen Alternaria sp. can decrease plant productivity by 5-78%, the economic and aesthetic value of tomatoes. Controlling using chemical fungicides can produce residue on the environment, then to reduce the residues there are alternatives can given is using vegetable fungicide of plant origin. The purposes of this study for knowing about the ability of basil leaves extract, cherry leaves extract and their combination extract for inhibiting the growth of Alternaria sp. pathogenic fungi on tomatoes and to determine the ratio that is effective for inhibiting Alternaria sp. pathogenic fungi on tomatoes with in vitro and in vivo environment. The research was conducted from January to September 2020 at the Pesticide Toxicology Laboratory and Plant Diseases Laboratory, Departement of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University and phytochemical test in Materia Medica Batu. This study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 6 treatments and 4 replication. The treatments given in the research include control, addition of basil extract, addition of cherry extract, combination treatment of basil extract : cherry extract (2:1), combination treatment of basil extract : cherry extract (1:2), and combination treatment of basil extract : cherry extract (1:1) at a concentration of 50.000 ppm for all treatment in the reaserch. The In vitro test used the Food Poison Technique method, as the parameters observed were colony diameter and dry weight of mycelium. While, the in vivo test carried out by soaking the tomatoes in the extract plant solution according to the treatments, then being infected with the Pathogen Alternaria sp., the parameters observed were symptom diameters, and conidia germination. The result data observation in the research was analyzed by Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) and if the data is significantly different, then further testing using Least Significant Different (LSD) test at 5% level. All data were analyzed using MS. Excel software. The results of this research indicate that the addition of a single extract of basil, single extract of cherry and combination treatment of basil extract : cherry extract (1:1) has a higher inhibitory power to against Alternaria sp. than combination treatment of basil extract : cherry extract (2:1) and combination treatment of basil extract : cherry extract (1:2) both in the in vitro an in vivo environment. The In vitro result in the treatment of basil extract, cherry extract, and combination treatment of basil extract : cherry extract (1:1) is 72,71%, 57,02% and 51,15%. While in the in vivo result is 1,01 cm, 1,09 cm and 1,14 cm

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0520040114
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 29 Jul 2022 02:30
Last Modified: 29 Jul 2022 02:30
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/192885
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