Lubang Resapan Biopori Berkompos Guna Meningkatkan Kapasitas Menahan Air pada Kebun Kopi Di PTPN XII Bangelan, Kabupaten Malang.

Hanuf, Atiqah Aulia (2021) Lubang Resapan Biopori Berkompos Guna Meningkatkan Kapasitas Menahan Air pada Kebun Kopi Di PTPN XII Bangelan, Kabupaten Malang. Magister thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Produktivitas kopi di PTPN XII Bangelan mengalami fluktuasi setiap tahunnya. Kondisi lahan berlereng dan berliat mengakibatkan limpasan permukaan yang tinggi. Tingginya limpasan permukaan tanah berdampak pada pemadatan tanah dan menurunnya laju infiltrasi tanah. Hal tersebut mempengaruhi ketersediaan air tanah bagi tanaman. Ketersediaan air tanah bagi tanaman dapat ditingkatkan dengan memperbaiki distribusi Pori Air Tersedia (PAT) tanah. Pemberian pupuk organik dapat memperbaiki PAT tanah melalui peningkatan agregasi tanah. Namun aplikasi pupuk organik dihadapkan pada limpasan permukaan atau erosi yang tinggi, sehingga menyebabkan tanah lapisan atas dan pupuk yang diaplikasikan dekat dengan permukaan tanah akan hilang. Aplikasi pupuk organik dengan menggunakan teknologi lubang resapan biopori berkompos dinilai akan meningkatan efisiensi pemupukan. Oleh sebab itu pemanfaatan Lubang Resapan Biopori Berkompos (LRBB) akan berdampak pada peningkatan PAT tanah sehingga kapasitas tanah menahan air meningkat. Bersamaan dengan peningkatan tersebut akan meningkatkan ketersediaan air bagi tanaman. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) menganalisis pengaruh lubang resapan biopori berkompos pada peningkatan kapasitas tanah menahan air, (2) menganalisis pengaruh jenis kompos pada peningkatan kapasitas tanah menahan air dan (3) menganalisis hubungan antara kandungan bahan organik tanah dengan kapasitas tanah menahan air. Penelitian dilakukan di PTPN XII Kebun Bangelan, Kabupaten Malang pada Maret 2020 – Agustus 2020. Analisis laboratorium dilakukan di Laboratorium Kimia dan Fisika tanah, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya. Lokasi penelitian terdapat di Blok 3 nomor kebun 55, luasnya 3,25 ha, kopi robusta umur 66 tahun. Kelerengan lokasi penelitian yaitu 8-10% ke arah selatan. Kategori pohon kopi yang menjadi karakter penelitian adalah kelas B yaitu pada kategori produksi sedang. Penelitian dilakukan dalam rancangan acak kelompok dengan tujuh perlakuan dan empat ulangan. Perlakuan lubang resapan biopori berkompos (LRBB) adalah: (1) P0 (kontrol: non LRBB); (2) P1 (LRBB 30 cm + kompos kotoran kambing); (3) P2 (LRBB 30 cm + kompos kulit kopi); (4) P3 (LRBB 60 cm + kompos kotoran kambing); (5) P4 (LRBB 60 cm + kompos kulit kopi); 6) P5 (LRBB 30 cm dan 60 cm + kompos kotoran kambing); dan (7) P6 (LRBB 30 dan 60 cm + kompos kulit kopi). Data eksperimen diuji dengan F (ANOVA), dan jika signifikan, diuji lanjut dengan DMRT (Duncan’s Multiple Rate Test) pada taraf 5%. Sifat tanah seperti bahan organik tanah, tekstur tanah, porositas total, berat isi, berat jenis, distribusi pori (pori drainase cepat, pori drainase lambat dan pori air tersedia) dan retensi air (pF 0, pF 1, pF 2, pF 2.5, dan pF 4.2) diperoleh dari analisis sampel tanah di laboratorium. Pengambilan sampel tanah dilakukan pada tiga kedalaman tanah yaitu 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, dan 40-60 cm. Analisis tanaman meliputi indeks SPAD daun kopi dan jumlah daun per pohon kopi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi lubang resapan biopori berkompos menunjukkan hasil yang berpengaruh nyata terhadap perlakuan kontrol. Sifat fisika meliputi berat isi, porositas, permeabilitas, distribusi pori, retensi air dan kandungan bahan organik mengalami peningkatan. Namun, perlakuan dengan lubang resapan biopori berkompos tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata. Lubang resapan biopori berkompos mampu meningkatkan kapasitas tanah ii menahan air yang berbeda nyata dibandingkan kontrol sebesar, (a) pada kedalaman 0-20 cm dari P0 14.19%volume meningkat menjadi 23.40%volume (P6) dengan peningkatan sebesar 64.88%; (b) pada kedalaman 20-40 cm dari P0 14.97%volume meningkat menjadi 23.88%volume (P2) dengan peningkatan sebesar 59.56% dan (c) pada kedalaman 40-60 cm dari P0 16.31%volume meningkat menjadi 24.65%volume (P6) dengan peningkatan sebesar 51.08%. Peningkatan pori air tersedia menunjukkan bidang resapan air pada tanah semakin meningkat. Lubang resapan biopori berkompos kombinasi 30+60 cm menunjukkan kecenderungan paling tinggi dalam kaitannya dengan perbaikan sifat fisika tanah dan kapasitas tanah menahan air. Kompos kulit kopi dan kompos kotoran kambing tidak berbeda nyata dalam meningkatkan kapasitas tanah menahan air, namun kompos kulit kopi cenderung lebih baik daripada kompos kotoran kambing pada kedalaman 0-60 cm. Peningkatan kapasitas tanah menahan air dipengaruhi oleh perbaikan sifat fisika tanah seperti berat isi, permeabilitas, total pori tanah dan distribusi pori tanah. Lubang resapan biopori berkompos mampu meningkatkan bahan organik tanah. Hubungan signifikan antara kandungan bahan organik tanah dengan kapasitas tanah menahan air, (a) kedalaman 0-20 cm : y= 3.0269x + 12.857; r= 0.702**; (b) kedalaman 20-40 cm : y= 5.0659x + 12.587; r= 0.676**; (c) kedalaman 40-60 cm : y= 5.1928x + 14.672; r= 0.751**. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kandungan bahan organik tanah yang tinggi juga diikuti dengan kapasitas menahan air yang tinggi. Pada penelitian ini, lubang resapan biopori berkompos perlu dilakukan dalam waktu yang lebih lama agar terlihat hasil yang signifikan dan perbandingan dengan beberapa dosis agar terlihat hasil yang terbaik.

English Abstract

Coffee productivity at PTPN XII Bangelan has fluctuated every year. Slope and clayey soil conditions cause high soil surface runoff. The high surface runoff has an impact on soil compaction and decreases the soil infiltration rate. This affects the soil water availability for plants. The soil water availability for plants can be increased by improving the distribution of soil available water pores. The application of organic fertilizers can improve soil available water pores by increasing soil aggregation. However, the application of organic fertilizers on soil that high surface runoff or high erosion, causing the topsoil and fertilizers applied close to the soil surface would loss. The application of organic fertilizers using Biopore Infiltration Hole with Compost (BIHC) is considered to increase fertilizer efficiency. Therefore, the use of BIHC will have an impact on increasing soil available water pores so that the soil water holding capacity increases. Along with this increase, available water for plant will increases. This study aims to (1) analyze the effect of BIHC on increasing soil water holding capacity, (2) analyze the effect of compost types on increasing soil water holding capacity and (3) analyze the relationship between soil organic matter content and soil water holding capacity. The research was conducted at PTPN XII Kebun Bangelan, Malang Regency in March 2020 - August 2020. Laboratory analysis was carried out at the Laboratory of Soil Chemistry and Soil Physics, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University. The research location is in block 3 number 55 with an area of approximately 3.25 ha, and 66 years old of coffee. The slope of the research location is 8-10% to the south. The coffee tree category which is the character of the research is class B, namely in the medium production category. The study was conducted in a randomized block design with seven treatments and four replications. The treatments for biopore infiltration hole with compost (BIHC) were: (1) P0 (control: non BIHC); (2) P1 (BIHC 30 cm + goat manure compost); (3) P2 (BIHC 30 cm + coffee husk compost); (4) P3 (BIHC 60 cm + goat manure compost); (5) P4 (BIHC 60 cm + coffee husk compost); 6) P5 (BIHC 30 cm and 60 cm + goat manure compost); and (7) P6 (BIHC 30 and 60 cm + coffee pulp compost). Experimental data were tested with F (ANOVA), and if it is significant, it further tested with DMRT (Duncan's Multiple Rate Test) at the 5% level. Soil properties such as soil organic matter, soil texture, total porosity, bulk density, particle gravity, pore distribution (fast drainage pores, slow drainage pores and available water pores) and water retention (pF 0, pF 1, pF 2, pF 2.5, and pF 4.2) obtained from the analysis of soil samples in the laboratory. Soil sampling was carried out at three soil depths, namely 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm. Plant analysis includes the SPAD index of coffee leaves and the number of leaves per coffee tree. The results showed that the application of BIHC had a significant effect on the control treatment. Physical properties include bulk density, porosity, permeability, pore distribution, water retention and organic matter content had increased. However, the treatment with BIHC did not show any significant iv differences. The BIHC was able to increase the soil water holding capacity which was significantly different than the control by, (a) at a depth of 0-20 cm from P0 14.19% volume increased to 23.40% volume (P6) with an increase of 64.88%; (b) at a depth of 20-40 cm from P0 14.97% volume increases to 23.88% volume (P2) with an increase of 59.56% and (c) at a depth of 40-60 cm from P0 16.31% volume increases to 24.65% volume (P6) with an increase of 51.08%. The increase in available water pores indicates that the water infiltration area in the soil is increasing. The BIHC with a combination of 30 + 60 cm showed the highest tendency in relation to the improvement of soil physical properties and soil water holding capacity. Coffee pulp compost and goat manure compost were not significantly different in increasing the soil water holding capacity, but coffee pulp compost tends to be better than goat manure compost at a depth of 0-60 cm. The increase in soil water holding capacity is influenced by improvements in soil physical properties such as bulk density, permeability, total soil pore and soil pore distribution. BIHC can increase soil organic matter. There is a significant relationship between soil organic matter content and soil water holding capacity, (a) 0-20 cm depth: y = 3.0269x + 12,857; r = 0.702 **; (b) 20-40 cm depth: y = 5.0659x + 12,587; r = 0.676 **; (c) depth of 40-60 cm: y = 5.1928x + 14,672; r = 0.751 **. This indicates that a high soil organic matter content is also followed by a high water-holding capacity. In this study, the BIHC needed to be done for a longer time in order to see significant results and comparisons with several doses in order to see the best results.

Item Type: Thesis (Magister)
Identification Number: 0521040185
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.4 Soil science
600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.7 Water conservation
Divisions: S2/S3 > Magister Pengelolaan Tanah dan Air, Fakultas Pertanian
Depositing User: agung
Date Deposited: 11 Jul 2022 08:01
Last Modified: 11 Jul 2022 08:01
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/191875
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