Analisis Beban Kerja pada Pekerja Produsen Makanan Ringan dengan Metode Workload Analysis

Aurellia, Azarine Faustina and Sugiono, ST.,MT.,Ph.D. (2021) Analisis Beban Kerja pada Pekerja Produsen Makanan Ringan dengan Metode Workload Analysis. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

UKM Keripik Tempe Putra Ridhlo merupakan salah satu produsen keripik tempe di Kota Malang yang berlokasi di Sentra Industri Keripik Tempe Sanan. Saat ini, UKM Keripik Tempe Putra Ridhlo telah memasarkan produknya ke puluhan toko oleh-oleh di wilayah Jawa Timur. Area produksi terbagi ke dalam 3 workstation, yaitu workstation persiapan produksi, workstation penggorengan, dan workstation pengemasan. Berdasarkan hasil pengamatan, diduga pekerja bagian penggorengan mengalami kelelahan akibat menggoreng keripik tempe dengan posisi berdiri. Selain itu, berdasarkan data hasil pre-work sampling, persentase kegiatan nonproduktif dari pekerja memiliki beban kerja yang tidak merata. Pada workstation persiapan produksi, rata-rata aktivitas produktif hanya mencapai 58,33%, sedangkan workstation penggorengan mencapai 79,58% dan workstation pengemasan sebesar 75,00%. Hingga saat ini, UKM Keripik Tempe Putra Ridhlo belum pernah melakukan evaluasi kebutuhan tenaga kerja berdasarkan beban kerja yang diterima. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persentase produktif pekerja, mengidentifikasi beban kerja yang diterima, mengetahui jumlah pekerja optimal dan mengetahui waktu standar yang diperlukan dalam proses produksi keripik tempe. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode Workload Analysis untuk mengetahui besar beban kerja yang diterima oleh setiap pekerja pada setiap workstation. Setelah mengelompokkan aktivitas produktif dan nonproduktif berdasarkan data job description, dilakukan pengumpulan data dengan metode work sampling. Dari data work sampling kemudian diperoleh persentase aktivitas produktif dan nonproduktif, kemudian dilakukan perhitungan nilai beban kerja yang diterima dengan metode Workload Analysis (WLA), dengan mempertimbangkan performance rating berdasarkan Westinghouse System’s Rating dan allowance berdasarkan ketetapan International Labor Organization (ILO) serta kenyamanan termal menurut SNI 03-6572-2001. Kondisi existing menunjukkan beban kerja tertinggi dialami workstation penggorengan sebesar 121,01%, workstation pengemasan sebesar 110,62%, dan workstation persiapan produksi sebesar 76,53%. Rekomendasi perbaikan pertama yang diberikan adalah menambah 2 orang pekerja, yang terdiri dari 1 orang tambahan pekerja workstation penggorengan dan 1 orang tambahan pekerja workstation pengemasan, Dengan penambahan 1 orang tenaga kerja pada workstation penggorengan akan menurunkan beban kerja yang diterima sebesar 96,81%, dan penambahan 1 orang tenaga kerja pada workstation pengemasan akan menurunkan beban kerja yang diterima sebesar 82,97%. Sedangkan rekomendasi perbaikan kedua yang diberikan adalah dengan melakukan realokasi job description pada pekerja dengan metode Yamazumi Chart. Berdasarkan hasil perhitungan waktu standar dan pemetaan dengan Yamazumi Chart, diperoleh job 1 workstation penggorengan yakni aktivitas pembuatan adonan tepung yang dilakukan selama 43,64 menit per hari dialokasikan sebagai job 4 workstation persiapan produksi. Aktivitas pembuatan adonan tepung dipilih karena memiliki resep standar yang telah ditetapkan, sehingga dapat dilakukan oleh seluruh pekerja termasuk pekerja workstation persiapan produksi.

English Abstract

UKM Keripik Tempe Putra Ridhlo is one of the tempe chips producers in Malang City, which is located in the Sentra Industri Keripik Tempe Sanan (Sanan Tempe Chips Industry Center). Currently, UKM Keripik Tempe Putra Ridhlo has marketed its products to dozens of gift shops in the East Java. The production area is divided into 3 workstations, namely production preparation workstations, frying workstations, and packaging workstations. Based on observations, it is suspected that the frying workers experienced fatigue due to frying tempe chips in a standing position, especially the frying process was carried out 2 times, in medium oil frying and hot oil frying. In addition, based on data from pre-work sampling, the percentage of non-productive activities of workers has an uneven workload. At the production preparation workstation, the average productive activity only reached 58.33%, while the frying workstation reached 79.58% and the packaging workstation was 75.00%. Until now, UKM Keripik Tempe Putra Ridhlo has never evaluated the workforce needs based on the workload received by the workers. This study aims to determine the percentage of productive workers, identify the workload received by the workers, determine the optimal number of workers and determine the standard time required in the production process of tempe chips. The study was conducted using the Workload Analysis method to determine the amount of workload received by each worker at each workstation. After classifying productive and nonproductive activities based on employee job description data. Data collection is carried out directly using the work sampling method. From the work sampling data, the percentage of productive and non-productive activities of workers is obtained, then the value of the workload received is calculated using the Workload Analysis (WLA) method, by considering performance rating based on the Westinghouse System's Rating, allowance based on the provisions of the International Labor Organization (ILO), and thermal comfort standard according to SNI 03-6572- 2001. Existing conditions indicate that the highest workload is experienced by frying workstations at 121.01%, followed by packaging workstations at 110.62%, and production preparation workstations at 76.53%. The first improvement recommendation given is to add 2 workers, consisting of 1 additional frying workstation worker and 1 additional packaging workstation worker. With the addition of 1 worker at the frying workstation, it will reduce the workload received by 96.81%, and the addition of 1 worker at the packaging workstation will reduce the workload received by 82.97%. While the second improvement recommendation given is to reallocate job descriptions to workers using the Yamazumi Chart method. Based on the results of standard time calculations and mapping with the Yamazumi Chart, job 1 frying workstation was obtained, namely flour batter making carried out for 43.64 minutes per day allocated as job 4 production preparation workstations. The flour batter making activity was chosen because it has a predetermined standard recipe, so that it can be carried out by all workers, including production preparation workstation workers.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0521070306
Uncontrolled Keywords: Kata kunci: Beban Kerja, Ergonomi, Workload Analysis, Work Sampling, Yamazumi Chart
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 620 Engineering and allied operations > 620.1 Engineering mechanics and materials
Divisions: Fakultas Teknik > Teknik Industri
Depositing User: yulia Chasanah
Date Deposited: 29 Mar 2022 07:49
Last Modified: 29 Mar 2022 08:26
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/190045
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