Potensi Ekstrak Buah Lerak (Sapindus Rarak Dc) Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Antraknosa (Colletotrichum Capsici) Pada Buah Cabai Merah

Devi., Dita Gustia and Prof. Dr. Ir. Abdul Latief,, MS. (2021) Potensi Ekstrak Buah Lerak (Sapindus Rarak Dc) Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Antraknosa (Colletotrichum Capsici) Pada Buah Cabai Merah. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tingkat produktivitas cabai tergolong masih rendah, hanya sekitar 9,10 ton/Ha apabila dibandingkan dengan potensi produksinya yang mencapai sekitar 12-20 ton/Ha. Salah satu penyebab rendahnya produksi cabai adalah serangan penyakit. Salah satu penyakit utama pada tanaman cabai adalah penyakit antraknosa, penyakit ini disebabkan oleh jamur Colletotrichum capsici. Upaya pengendalian penyakit antraknosa yang dilakukan sampai saat ini adalah aplikasi fungisida sintetik karena dianggap praktis, mudah didapat, dan menunjukkan efek yang cepat namun memiliki efek samping yang berbahaya bagi lingkungan dan juga kesehatan. Untuk mengatasi kendala tersebut dapat dilakukan teknik pengendalian dengan menggunakan fungisida nabati yang lebih ramah lingkungan karena bahan dasarnya berasal dari alam. Lerak mengandung senyawa saponin pada bagian buahnya. Saponin dianggap sebagai bagian dari pertahanan tanaman karena memiliki aktivitas anti mikroba, alelopati, insektisida, moluskasida dan juga fungisida. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui potensi dan konsentrasi efektif dari fungisida nabati ekstrak buah lerak dalam mengendalikan pertumbuhan jamur C. capsici. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei hingga bulan Oktober 2021 di Laboratorium Penyakit Tanaman Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya. Penelitian dilaksanakan dengan tiga tahapan pengujian yaitu secara in vitro metode peracunan, in vivo preventif dan kuratif dengan metode pelukaan. Penelitian in vivo dan in vitro dilaksanakan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap, dengan tujuh perlakuan yaitu kontrol (tanpa perlakuan), konsentrasi ekstrak lerak 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%,10% dan kontrol fungisida sintetik berbahan aktif mankozeb 80% dan seluruh perlakuan diulang sebanyak empat kali. Variabel pengamatan meliputi diameter pertumbuhan jamur C. capsici, persentase penghambatan, berat kering miselium (biomassa), masa inkubasi, intensitas serangan penyakit, dan efektivitas perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak buah lerak mampu menghambat pertumbuhan jamur C. capsici penyebab penyakit antraknosa pada buah cabai merah. Pada pengujian secara in vitro pemberian konsentrasi ekstrak buah lerak pada konsentrasi 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, dan 10% mampu menghambat pertumbuhan jamur C. capsici dibandingkan dengan pertumbuhan jamur pada kontrol tanpa perlakuan walaupun penghambatan yang terjadi tidak sebaik hambatan yang diakibatkan oleh pengaplikasian fungisida mankozeb 80% dengan hambatan tertinggi terjadi pada perlakuan dengan konsentrasi 10%. Sedangkan pada pengujian secara in vivo preventif dan kuratif dengan metode pelukaan nilai efektivitas dari perlakuan konsentrasi ekstrak 10% tidak memiliki perbedaan yang nyata dengan perlakuan kontrol fungisida berbahan aktif mankozeb 80%.

English Abstract

The productivity level of chili is still low, only about 9.10 tons / Ha when compared to its production potential which reaches around 12-20 tons / Ha. One of the causes of low chili production is the attack of a disease. One of the main diseases in the chili plant is anthracnose disease, this disease is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici. Anthracnose disease control efforts carried until now are the application of synthetic fungicides because they are considered practical, easy to obtain, and show rapid effects but have side effects that are harmful to the environment as well as human health. To overcome these obstacles, we can do control techniques by using plant fungicides that are more environmentally friendly because the basic material comes from nature. Lerak contains saponin compounds on the part of the fruit. Saponins are considered part of plant defenses because they have anti-microbial activity, allelopathy, insecticides, molluscacide, and fungicides. The goal of this study was to find out the potential and effective concentration of plant-based fungicides of lerak fruit extract in controlling the growth of C. capsici. The research was conducted from May to October 2021 at the Laboratory of Plant Diseases Department of Pests and Plant Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya. The study was conducted with three stages of testing, namely in vitro with poisoned food technique, in vivo preventive, and curative with scaring method. In vivo and in vitro studies were conducted using a Complete Randomized Design, with seven treatments namely control (without treatment), the concentration of lerak extract 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%,10%, and the control of synthetic fungicides made from active compound mancozeb 80% and all treatment repeated four times. Observational variables include the diameter of C. capsici fungus growth, inhibitory percentage, dry weight of mycelium (biomass), incubation period, the intensity of disease attacks, and effectiveness of treatment.. The results showed that the extract of the fruit was able to inhibit the growth of C. capsici fungus that causes anthracnose disease in red chili fruit. In the in vitro testing with poisoned food technique, the lerak extract at concentrations of 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and 10% was able to inhibit the growth of C. capsici fungus compared to the growth of fungi on control without treatment even though the inhibition that occurs is not as good as the inhibition caused by the application of 80% mancozeb fungicides, but the highest resistance occurs in treatment with a concentration of 10%is good too. While in preventive and in vivo curative with scaring method, the effectiveness of the extract concentration treatment of 10% had no noticeable difference with the fungicide control treatment mancozeb 80%.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0521040178
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 08 Feb 2022 03:48
Last Modified: 24 Feb 2022 01:16
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/189534
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