Keanekaragaman Dan Kelimpahan Parasitoid Yang Berasosiasi Dengan Spodoptera Frugiperda Pada Pertanaman Jagung

Linggani, Asti and Dr. Akhmad Rizali,, SP., M.Si. (2021) Keanekaragaman Dan Kelimpahan Parasitoid Yang Berasosiasi Dengan Spodoptera Frugiperda Pada Pertanaman Jagung. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Jagung berperan penting dalam kehidupan manusia sebagai bahan pangan yang mengandung sumber karbohidrat setelah beras. Selain itu, jagung juga dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan pakan ternak serta bahan industri dengan tingkat kebutuhan yang besar. Kendala yang sering dihadapi dalam praktek budidaya jagung tidak terlepas dari serangan hama yang dapat menyebabkan kerugian secara ekonomi. Di tahun 2019 terdapat hama baru yang menyerang tanaman jagung di Indonesia, yaitu ulat grayak jagung Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Invasi S. frugiperda memiliki konsekuensi besar, hama ditemukan di daerah baru tidak memiliki musuh alami, yang akan mendukung periode awal pertumbuhan dan penyebaran populasi cepat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan parasitoid yang berasosiasi dengan hama S. frugiperda pada pertanaman jagung dan mempelajari pengaruh kondisi habitat terhadap keberadaan dan kelimpahan parasitoid. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari - Maret 2020 di 12 lokasi yang berbeda. Penentuan lokasi penelitian menggunakan metode snowball sampling dan expert judgement sampling. Kriteria lahan jagung yang digunakan memiliki luasan minimal 500 m², umur tanaman jagung minimal 3 minggu setelah tanam (mst) dan jarak antar lokasi penelitian minimal 2 km. Kegiatan pengamatan dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali, pengamatan pertama pada umur tanaman jagung 3 mst dan pengamatan selanjutnya dengan interval waktu 3 minggu. Di setiap lahan ditentukan empat transek untuk pengamatan dan pengambilan sampel serangga dengan setiap transek terdiri atas 100 tanaman jagung. Metode pengambilan sampel pada setiap lahan adalah dengan koleksi S. frugiperda meliputi telur dan larva. Spesimen yang diperoleh selanjutnyan dibawa ke laboratorium untuk dipelihara dan diamati parasitoid yang muncul. Hasil penelitian diperoleh parasitoid yang berasosiasi dengan S. frugiperda hanya ditemukan pada stadia telur, sedangkan pada stadia larva tidak ditemukan. Jenis parasitoid yang ditemukan memarasit yaitu Telenomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) dan Mymaridae sp. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Berdasarkan hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa keberadaan dan kelimpahan parasitoid dipengaruhi oleh faktor budidaya dan kondisi habitat sekitar lahan pertanaman jagung.

English Abstract

Corn plays an important role in human life as a food that contains a source of carbohydrates after rice. In addition, corn is also used as an animal feed ingredient as well as an industrial material with a large need. The obstacles that are often faced in the practice of corn cultivation cannot be separated from the attack of pests that can cause economic losses. In 2019 there was a new pest attacking maize crops in Indonesia, namely the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The invasion of S. frugiperda has great consequences, the pests found in new areas have no natural enemies, which will support the initial period of rapid population growth and spread. This study were aimeds to study the diversity and abundance of parasitoids associated with S. frugiperda in maize fields and to study the effect of habitat conditions surrounding maize fields on the presence and abundance of parasitoids. Field research was conducted from January to March 2020 in 12 different locations. Determining the research location using the snowball sampling method and expert judgment sampling. The criteria for maize land used to have an area of at least 500 m², the age of the maize plant is at least 3 weeks after planting (WAP) and the distance between research locations is at least 2 km. Observation activities were carried out 3 times, the first observation at the age of 3 mst maize plants and subsequent observations with 3 week intervals. In each field, four transects were determined for observation and insect sampling with each transect consisting of 100 maize plants. The sampling method in each land is the collection of S. frugiperda including eggs and larvae. The specimens obtained are then taken to the laboratory to be maintained and observed for parasitoids that appear. The results showed that parasitoids associated with S. frugiperda were only found in the egg stage, while not in the larval stage. The types of parasitoids found in parasites are Telenomus sp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Mymaridae sp. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae). Based on the results of the analysis, it shows that the presence and abundance of parasitoids are influenced by cultivation factors and habitat conditions around the maize area.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0521040176
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 08 Feb 2022 02:32
Last Modified: 24 Feb 2022 08:41
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/189517
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