Pertumbuhan Populasi Dan Perkembangan Corcyra Cephalonica (Stainton) Pada Beberapa Proporsi Bentuk Butiran Beras Ketan Putih

Kasanah., Erni and Prof. Dr. Ir. Ludji Pantja Astuti,, M.S. and Dr. Akhmad Rizali,, S.P., M.Si (2021) Pertumbuhan Populasi Dan Perkembangan Corcyra Cephalonica (Stainton) Pada Beberapa Proporsi Bentuk Butiran Beras Ketan Putih. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Ketan putih merupakan bahan makanan yang dibutuhkan oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Tingkat konsumsi masyarakat Indonesia terhadap beras ketan mengalami peningkatan setiap tahunnya, yaitu sebesar 19,10% pada tahun 2014 – 2018. Peningkatan permintaan akan beras ketan menuntut dilakukannya impor dari luar negeri sebanyak 47.000 ton yang disetujui oleh Kementerian Perdagangan tahun 2018. Salah satu kendala dalam penyimpanan beras ketan yaitu adanya serangan hama Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) yang dapat menimbulkan kerusakan berupa gumpalan agregasi. Sebagai upaya meminimalisir kerusakan akibat hama C. cephalonica, diperlukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengkaji pertumbuhan populasi dan perkembangan C. cephalonica pada beberapa proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang pada bulan Januari sampai Juni 2020 dengan rerata suhu harian 27,61 °C dan kelembapan relatif harian 71,43%. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dan terdiri dari 12 perlakuan proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih meliputi: 100% utuh, 75% utuh + 25% patah, 75% utuh +25% tepung, 50% utuh + 50% patah, 50% utuh + 50% tepung, 25% utuh + 75% patah, 25% utuh + 75% tepung, 100% patah, 75% patah + 25% tepung, 50% patah + 50% tepung, 25% patah + 75% tepung dan 100% tepung yang diulang sebanyak tiga kali untuk pengamatan pertumbuhan dan sepuluh kali untuk pengamatan perkembangan. Pada pengamatan pertumbuhan populasi diinfestasikan 100 butir telur pada 100 g pakan sesuai perlakuan, kemudian diamati jumlah larva, jumlah pupa, jumlah imago jantan, dan jumlah imago betina. Pengamatan perkembangan dilakukan dengan menginfestasikan satu telur ke dalam masing-masing tabung kecil yang berisi 6 g pakan sesuai perlakuan, kemudian diamati stadium telur, larva, pupa, lama hidup imago (longevity), oviposisi, praoviposisi, pascaoviposisi, fekunditas, fertilitas, lama pra dewasa dan siklus hidup. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap pertumbuhan populasi, stadium telur, stadium pupa, lama hidup imago jantan, lama hidup imago betina, praoviposisi, oviposisi, pascaoviposisi, fekunditas, dan fertilitas C. cephalonica. Pada stadium larva, lama pra dewasa, dan siklus hidup, perbedaan proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih berpengaruh nyata. Stadium larva berlangsung lebih lama pada proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih utuh 100% yaitu 56,30 hari dan lebih cepat pada proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih patah 50% dan tepung 50% yaitu 36,00 hari. Lama pra dewasa berlangsung lebih lama pada proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih utuh 100% yaitu 71,20 hari dan lebih cepat pada proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih tepung 100% dengan lama 50,00 hari. Siklus hidup C. cephalonica berlangsung lebih lama pada proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih utuh 100% viii yaitu 64,60 hari dan lebih cepat pada proporsi bentuk butiran beras ketan putih patah 75% + tepung 25% yaitu 52,90 hari.

English Abstract

White glutinous rice is a food ingredient needed by Indonesian peoples. The consumption level of Indonesian people towards glutinous rice has increased every year, that is 19.10% from 2014 to 2018. Increased demand for glutinous rice requires 47.000 tons of imports from aboard which was approved by the Ministry of Trade in 2018. One of the obstacles in glutinous rice storage is the attack of Corcyra cephalonica (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), which can cause damages in the form of lumps of aggregation. To minimize the damage caused by C. cephalonica, research that aims to study the population growth and development of C. cephalonica in several grain form proportions of white glutinous rice is needed. This study was conducted at the Plant Pest Laboratory, Department of Plant Pest and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, from January to June 2020, with average daily temperature was 27.61 °C and daily relative humidity of 71,75%. This research was designed using a completely randomized design (CRD) and consisted of 12 treatments proportions of white glutinous grains i.e: 100% whole, 75% whole + 25% broken, 75% whole +25% flour, 50% whole + 50% broken, 50% whole + 50% flour, 25% whole + 75% broken, 25% whole + 75% flour, 100% broken, 75% broken + 25% flour, 50% broken + 50% flour, 25% broken + 75% flour and 100% flour and it was repeated three times for population growth and ten times for developmental observations. In observation of the population growth of 100 eggs infested in 100 g of feed according to treatment, then observed the number of larvae, pupae number, the number of adult males, and the number of adult females. Developmental observations were carried out by investing one egg into each small tube containing 6 g of feed according to the treatment, then observed the egg stage, larvae, pupae, longevity, oviposition, preoviposition, postoviposition, fecundity, fertility, immature and life cycle. The results showed that the proportion of white glutinous rice grains had no significant effect on population growth, egg stage, pupal stage, adult male lifespan, adult female lifespan, preoviposition, oviposition, postoviposition, fecundity, and fertility of C. cephalonica. At the larval stage, immature, and life cycle, the proportion of white glutinous rice grains has a significant effect. The larval stage was longer in the proportion of 100% whole grain of white glutinous rice, i.e. 56.30 days, and faster in the proportion of 50% broken grain of white glutinous rice and 50% flour grain which is 36.00 days. The immature stage was longer in the proportion of 100% whole grain of white glutinous rice, i.e. 71.20 days, and faster in the proportion of 100% flour grain of white glutinous rice with a duration of 50.00 days. The life cycle of C. cephalonica was longer in the proportion of 100% whole grain of white glutinous rice, i.e. 64.60 days, and faster in the proportion of broken grain of white glutinous rice 75% + 25% flour grain, which is 52.90 days.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0521040170
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 07 Feb 2022 06:53
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2022 07:57
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/189460
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