Pertumbuhan Populasi Dan Perkembangan Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Pada Beberapa Varietas Beras

Wandansari, Tyssa Ardhining (2021) Pertumbuhan Populasi Dan Perkembangan Tribolium Castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Pada Beberapa Varietas Beras. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Beras merupakan bahan pangan yang menjadi kebutuhan pokok bagi masyarakat Indonesia. Untuk memenuhi permintaan beras yang semakin meningkat, diperlukan penyediaan beras yang berkelanjutan melalui usaha penyimpanan beras. Selama penyimpanan, beras rentan terhadap kerusakan akibat serangan hama pascapanen, salah satunya ialah Tribolium castaneum. Serangga T. castaneum merupakan hama penting yang menyerang berbagai komoditas beras dan serealia serta bahan pakan yang rusak akibat penanganan pascapanen yang kurang tepat. Berbagai varietas padi beras terus dikembangkan dan diproduksi di Indonesia. Setiap varietas beras diduga mempunyai sifat genetik yang beragam dengan karakteristik fisik dan kandungan nutrisi yang berbeda. Oleh karena itu, penelitian tentang pengaruh beberapa varietas terhadap pertumbuhan populasi dan perkembangan T. castaneum pada berbagai varietas beras penting dilakukan, sehingga diharapkan dapat meminimalkan kerugian akibat serangan T. castaneum pada berbagai varietas beras di Indonesia. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama Tumbuhan, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang pada bulan Januari sampai dengan November 2020. Pakan yang digunakan untuk perlakuan ialah sepuluh varietas beras (Cibogo, Ciherang, Inpari 32, Inpari 42, IR64, Mapan 05, Mekongga, Mentik Wangi, Tropiko dan Way Apoburu). Penelitian ini dilaksanakan menggunakan metode tidak memilih (no choice test). Penelitian pertumbuhan diawali dengan menimbang pakan sebanyak 30 g, kemudian dimasukkan ke dalam tabung perlakuan (d=6,5 cm, t=9,5 cm). Selanjutnya pakan diinfestasi imago T. castaneum sebanyak 15 pasang yang berumur 7–14 hari yang diperoleh dari hasil perbanyakan di laboratorium, kemudian tabung perlakuan ditutup menggunakan kain kasa dan diikat dengan karet gelang. Penelitian pertumbuhan dilakukan dengan empat kali ulangan. Sementara itu, pengamatan perkembangan dilakukan menggunakan 10 butir telur dari imago baru T. castaneum yang dipasangkan pada hari yang sama dan dimasukkan ke dalam tabung fial (d=3 cm, t=3 cm) yang berisi pakan beras sebanyak 3 g. Pengamatan perkembangan diulang sebanyak tiga kali. Penelitian pertumbuhan dan perkembangan diatur dalam Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Variabel pengamatan penelitian pertumbuhan dan perkembangan meliputi mortalitas imago infestasi, jumlah telur, jumlah larva, jumlah pupa, jumlah imago baru, fase telur, fase larva, fase pupa, praoviposisi, dan siklus hidup. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pertumbuhan populasi T. castaneum lebih tinggi pada varietas Tropiko dibandingkan dengan varietas yang lain. Pertumbuhan populasi terendah terdapat pada varietas Cibogo, Mekongga, dan Way Apoburu. Hal ini disebabkan fase pupa pada varietas Cibogo, Mekongga, dan Way Apoburu mengalami kematian ketika menjadi imago baru, sehingga siklus hidup terputus. ii Hasil penelitian pada perkembangan serangga T. castaneum menunjukkan bahwa hanya pada varietas Inpari 42 dan IR64 yang dapat diamati. Hal ini disebabkan siklus hidup T. castaneum terputus ketika fase pupa menjadi imago baru pada varietas Cibogo, Mekongga, dan Way Apoburu. Sementara pada varietas Ciherang, Inpari 32, Mapan 05, Mentik Wangi, dan Tropiko, siklus hidup T. castaneum terputus ketika imago baru meletakkan telur pertama kali. Perkembangan T. castaneum lebih cepat pada varietas Inpari 42 dibandingkan dengan varietas IR64.

English Abstract

Rice is a staple food for the people of Indonesia. To meet the increasing demand for rice, it is necessary to provide sustainable rice through rice storage businesses. During storage, rice is susceptible to damage due to postharvest pest attacks, one of the pest is Tribolium castaneum. T. castaneum insect is an important pest that attacks various rice and cereal commodities as well as feed ingredients that are damaged due to improper post-harvest handling. Various varieties of rice continue to be developed and produced in Indonesia. Each rice variety is thought to have different genetic characteristics with different physical characteristics and nutritional content. Therefore, research on the population growth and development of T. castaneum on various rice varieties is important, so that it is expected to minimize losses due to T. castaneum attack on various rice varieties in Indonesia. The research was conducted at the Plant Pests Laboratory, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang from January to November 2020. The feed used for the treatment was ten varieties of rice (Cibogo, Ciherang, Inpari 32, Inpari 42, IR64, Mapan 05, Mekongga, Mentik Wangi, Tropiko and Way Apoburu). This research was conducted using no choice test method. The growth population study was started by weighing 30 g of feed, then put into the treatment tube (d=6.5 cm, t=9.5 cm). Furthermore, the feed was infested by 15 pairs of T. castaneum adult 7–14 days old obtained from the rearing in the laboratory, then the treatment tubes were closed using gauze and tied with rubber bands. This research was carried out with four replications. Meanwhile, developmental observations were carried out using 10 eggs from new T. castaneum adult which paired on the same day and put into a fial tube (d=3 cm, t=3 cm) containing 3 g of rice feed. Developmental observations were repeated three times. The population growth and development studies were arranged in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Variables observed in growth and development research were mortality of adult infestation, number of eggs, number of larvae, number of pupae, number of new adults, egg phase, larval phase, pupa phase, preoviposition, and life cycle. The results showed that the population growth of T. castaneum was higher in the Tropiko variety compared to the other varieties. The lowest population growth was found in Cibogo, Mekongga, and Way Apoburu varieties. This was due to the pupa stage of the Cibogo, Mekongga, and Way Apoburu varieties that died when they became new adults, so that the life cycle is interrupted. The results on the development of T. castaneum showed that only Inpari 42 and IR64 varieties could be observed. This was because the life cycle of T. castaneum was interrupted when the pupa phase became a new adults on Cibogo, Mekongga, and Way Apoburu varieties. Meanwhile, in Ciherang, Inpari 32, Mapan 05, Mentik Wangi, and Tropiko varieties, the life cycle of T. castaneum was interrupted when the imago iv laid its first egg. The development of T. castaneum was faster on the Inpari 42 variety compared to the IR64 variety.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0521040027
Subjects: 300 Social sciences > 338 Production > 338.1 Agriculture > 338.16 Production efficiency
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 25 Jan 2022 06:32
Last Modified: 23 Feb 2022 03:59
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/188828
[thumbnail of DALAM MASA EMBARGO] Text (DALAM MASA EMBARGO)
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