Pengkayaan Media Pada Jamur Entomo-Acaripatogen Lecanicillium Lecanii Untuk Mematikan Tungau Merah Laba-Laba Tetranychus Urticae

Putro., Rodifan Maarij Firman Dwi (2021) Pengkayaan Media Pada Jamur Entomo-Acaripatogen Lecanicillium Lecanii Untuk Mematikan Tungau Merah Laba-Laba Tetranychus Urticae. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tungau merah Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichydae) merupakan hama penting di bidang pertanian karena dapat menyebabkan kerusakan tanaman. Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viegas adalah salah satu jamur entomo-acaripatogen yang dapat digunakan untuk mengendalikan beberapa jenis serangga hama termasuk tungau T. urticae. Jamur entomo-acaripatogen memiliki kelemahan yaitu terjadi penurunan kerapatan konidia, viabilitas, dan virulensinya akibat kekurangan nutrisi selama proses perbanyakan yang secara terus-menerus yang dilakukan secara in-vitro. Pengkayaan media pertumbuhan jamur entomo-acaripatogen menggunakan bahan yang mengandung protein, karbon, dan kitin diketahui dapat meningkatkan kerapatan konidia, viabilitas, dan virulensi jamur entomo-acaripatogen. Penelitan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh penambahan tepung serangga G. assimilis, larva T. molitor, dan cangkang kerang P. viridis pada media buatan terhadap pertumbuhan jamur entomo-acaripatogen L. lecanii untuk meningkatkan virulensinya pada tungau T. urticae. Penelitian dilaksanakan mulai Agustus 2018 hingga Desember 2019 di Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan (HPT), Fakultas Pertanian (FP), Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian (FTP), Universitas Brawijaya (UB) dan Laboratorium Kimia, Jurusan Teknik Kimia, Politeknik Negeri Malang (Polinema). Tungau T. urticae yang diperoleh dari kebun singkong diperbanyak di dalam arena perlakuan. Jamur L. lecanii yang sebelumnya telah ditularkan kembali ke tungau dan diindentifikasi, diperbanyak secara in-vitro menggunakan media PDA. Tepung G. assimilis, larva T. molitor, dan cangkang kerang P. viridis yang telah dibuat kemudian dianalisa kadar nutrisinya melalui uji proksimat dan kadar kitinnya menggunakan teknik isolasi kitin. Persentase kadar kitin digunakan untuk menentukan berat masing-masing tepung yang akan ditambahkan ke dalam media PDA. Media PDA yang telah dimodifikasi dengan penambahan ketiga jenis tepung dengan perlakuan masing-masing tepung adalah konsentrasi kitin 0,5 dan 1,0% digunakan untuk uji pertumbuhan L. lecanii. Jamur L. lecanii yang telah ditumbuhkan selama 21 hari dalam media PDA yang telah diberi perlakuan diamati morfologinya, kerapatan dan viabilitas konidianya. Jamur L. lecanii terlebih dahulu diperbanyak dalam media cair EKD yang telah diberi perlakuan dengan penambahan ketiga jenis tepung dengan konsentrasi kitin 0,5 dan 1,0%. Uji virulensi dilakukan menggunakan suspensi jamur L. lecanii dengan kerapatan konidia 107 konidia/ml aquades. Pengamatan dilakukan setiap 24 jam sekali selama 7 hari setelah aplikasi meliputi jumlah imago betina tungau T. urticae yang mati, jumlah telur, dan larva. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam. Apabila hasilnya berbeda nyata maka akan dilakukan dengan uji lanjut Duncan pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Penambahan tepung G. assimilis, larva T. molitor, dan cangkang P. viridis pada media PDA berpengaruh nyata terhadap diameter koloni, kerapatan, dan viabilitas konidia jamur L. lecanii. Rerata diameter koloni terlebar pada 21 hari setelah inokulasi (HSI) terdapat pada perlakuan penambahan tepung G. assimilis dengan konsentrasi kitin 0,5% yaitu 8,83 cm. Rerata kerapatan konidia tertinggi terdapat pada perlakuan penambahan tepung cangkang P. viridis dengan konsentrasi kitin 0,5%, yaitu 70,13 x 107 konidia/ml aquades. Rerata persentase viabilitas tertinggi terdapat pada perlakuan penambahan tepung G. assimilis dengan konsentrasi kitin 0,5%, yaitu 48,1%. Penambahan tepung G. assimilis, larva T. molitor, dan cangkang P. viridis pada media EKD berpengaruh nyata terhadap mortalitas dan jumlah larva, sedangkan jumlah telur adalah sama. Rerata mortalitas T. urticae tertinggi terjadi pada perlakuan penambahan tepung larva T. molitor konsentrasi kitin 1,0%, yaitu 31,39%. Rerata jumlah larva terendah terjadi pada perlakuan penambahan tepung larva T. molitor konsentrasi kitin 1,0% yaitu, 33,75 ekor.

English Abstract

The red mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichydae) is an important pest in agriculture because it can cause crop damage. Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viegas is one of the entomo-acaripatogenic fungi that can be used to control several types of insect pests including T. urticae mites. The entomo-acaripatogenic fungus has a weakness, are decrease in conidia density, viability, and virulence due to lack of nutrients during the continuous propagation process carried out in-vitro. Enrichment of entomo-acaripatogenic mushroom growth media using ingredients containing of protein, carbon, and chitin is known to increase conidia density, viability, and virulence of entomo-acaripatogenic fungi. The aim of this research was to study the effect of addition of G. assimilis, T. molitor larvae, and P. viridis shells powder to artificial media for the growth of the L. lecanii to increase its virulence on T. urticae mites. The research was conducted from August 2018 to December 2019 in the Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Brawijaya University and Chemical Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Malang State Polytechnic. T. urticae mites were obtained from cassava field and were propagated in the treatment arena. L. lecanii fungus, which had previously been re-transmitted to mites and identified, was propagated in vitro using Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media. The G. assimilis, T. molitor larvae, and P. viridis shells powder were then analyzed for their nutritional content through proximate tests and their chitin percentage through chitin isolation. The percentage of chitin content is used to determine the weight of each powder that will be combined to the PDA media. The PDA media that had been modified with the combination of the three types of powder with each powder treatment were chitin concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0% were used for the growth test of L. lecanii. L. lecanii that had been grown for 21 days in PDA media that had been treated were observed for their morphology, density and viability of conidia. L. lecanii were propagated first in Potato Dextrose Extact (PDE) liquid media which had been treated with the addition of the three types of powder with chitin concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0%. Virulence test was carried out using L. lecanii suspension with conidia density of 107 conidia/ml aquades. Observations were made every 24 hours for 7 days after application including the number of dead female T. urticae mites, the number of eggs, and larvae. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance. If the results are significantly different, it will be carried out with Duncan's continued test at an error level of 5%. The addition of G. assimilis, T. molitor larvae, and P. viridis shells powder on PDA media had a significant effect on colony diameter, density, and conidia viability of L. lecanii fungi. The widest average of colony diameter at 21 days after inoculation (HSI) was found in the addition of G. assimilis powder with a chitin concentration of 0.5%, which was 8.83 cm. The highest average of conidia density was found in the addition of P. viridis shell powder with a chitin concentration of 0.5%, which was 70.13 x 107 conidia/ml aquades. The highest average of percentage of viability was found in the addition of G. assimilis powder with a chitin concentration of 0.5%, which was 48.1%. The addition of G. assimilis, T. molitor larvae, and P. viridis powder shells to PDE media had a significant effect on mortality and the number of larvae, while the number of eggs was same. The highest mortality rate of T. urticae occurred in the addition of T. molitor larvae powder with 1.0% chitin concentration which was 31.39%. The lowest average of number of larvae occurred in the addition of T. molitor larva powder with 1.0% chitin concentration, which was 33.75 individuals.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 0521040026
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 25 Jan 2022 06:24
Last Modified: 24 Feb 2022 05:44
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/188822
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