Kompatibilitas Penyerbukan Sendiri Dan Persilangan Interspesifik Pada Ciplukan (Genus Physalis) Berbeda Spesies

Arruum, Zainyah Salmah (2021) Kompatibilitas Penyerbukan Sendiri Dan Persilangan Interspesifik Pada Ciplukan (Genus Physalis) Berbeda Spesies. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tanaman ciplukan dapat ditemukan di berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Physalis merupakan tanaman perdu yang dimanfaatkan seluruh bagian untuk keperluan penyediaan buah segar, bahan baku industri nutraseutikal, dan biofarmaka. Adanya potensi yang dimiliki tanaman ciplukan, dapat dilakukan upaya peningkatan kualitas tanaman. Diharapkan tanaman memiliki vigor yang baik, penampilan warna buah dan calyx yang menarik, serta memiliki ukuran buah besar dan rasa yang manis untuk pemanfaatan buah segar, serta bahan baku dalam bidang nutraseutikal dan biofarmaka. Upaya peningkatan kualitas suatu tanaman dapat dilakukan menggunakan sumberdaya genetik lokal melalui persilangan interspesifik. Persilangan interspesifik memungkinkan terjadinya transfer gen antar spesies sehingga diharapkan terbentuk spesies baru dengan karakter yang diinginkan. Di Indonesia sejauh ini belum ada laporan mengenai hibridisasi antar spesies Physalis. Oleh karena itu dilakukan persilangan interspesifik pada 5 spesies Physalis agar dihasilkan jenis baru untuk meningkatkan nilai kualitas tanaman, mengevaluasi kemungkinan dilakukan hibridisasi interspesifik, dan evaluasi serta kompatibilitas persilangan antar spesies tersebut. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survei melalui observasi dan pengukuran terhadap buah dan biji hasil persilangan. Persilangan dilakukan menggunakan rancangan perkawinan dialel (diallel mating design) dengan perkawinan antar spesies tanaman (interspesifik) dan menyerbuk sendiri (selfing). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, dari 25 kombinasi persilangan yang dilakukan, diperoleh keberhasilan pada 11 kombinasi persilangan. Tingkat kompatibilitas diperoleh pada kombinasi selfing dari 5 spesies yang digunakan dengan persentase 100% dan 1 pada persilangan interspesifik P. pubescens (PPB-68154-04) x P. angulata (PAN-69281). Keberhasilan persilangan tingkat inkompatibilitas sebagian didapatkan pada persilangan interspesifik sebanyak 4 kombinasi persilangan. Sedangkan tingkat inkompatibilitas penuh terdapat pada persilangan interspesifik sebanyak 12 kombinasi persilangan.

English Abstract

Ciplukan can be found in various regions in Indonesia. This plant has various kinds of regional names. Physalis is a herbaceous plant that is used throughout its parts for the supply of fresh fruit, raw materials for the nutritional industry, and pharmaceuticals. The bioactive content that is useful in fruit and all parts of plants trigger many countries in the world to develop this plant. With the potential of the ciplukan plant, efforts can be made to improve the quality of the plant. It is expected that the plants have good vigor, attractive appearance of fruit color and calyx, and have a large fruit size and sweet taste for the use of fresh fruit, as well as raw materials of nutraceutical and biopharmacy. Efforts to improve the quality of a plant can be done using local genetic resources through interspecific crossing. Interspecific crossing allows gene transfer between species so that new species with the desired characteristics are expected. So far in Indonesia, there have been no reports of hybridization between Physalis species. Therefore, interspecific crossing was carried out on 5 species of Physalis in order to produce new species to increase the value of plant quality, evaluate the possibility of interspecific hybridization, and evaluate and compatibility of crosses between these species. The study was conducted from January 2020 to June 2020 at Brawijaya University Seed and Nursery Industry Agro Techno Park, Jatikerto Village, Kromengan District, Malang Regency. The tools used in this research include, a set of plant cultivation tools, a set of hybridization tools, analytical scales, cameras, stationery, and ciplukan descriptors of Husk Tomato UPOV Code: PHYSA Guidelines for the Conduct of Tests for Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability: Husk Tomato (Physalis philadelphica Lam., Physalis ixocarpa Brot., Physalis pruinosa L., and Physalis angulata L.), Illustrated Guidelines for the Description of Husk Tomato (Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Horm.) Varieties, and A taxonomic analysis of the species of Physalis L. (Solanaceae) based on morphological characters. The material used in this study includes 5 species of Physalis angulata (PAN-69281), Physalis pruinosa (PPN+3101), Physalis peruviana (PPV-45311-03), Physalis pubescens (PPB-68154-04), Physalis ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2), husks, manure, soil, alcohol, ZA, KCl, fertiphospat, MKP, and KNO3, and pesticides. This study uses a survey method through observation and measurement of fruit and seeds from the results of crossing. Crosses are carried out using a diallel mating design by interspecific hybridization and self-pollination. The crossing is done by hand pollination and assisted with tweezers by applying pollen to the stigma. There are 25 cross breeding combinations. Observations were made on the success of the pollination from crosses. Data analysis was performed in the form of a calculation of the percentage of cross results which was then analyzed based on descriptive statistics to determine the level of compatibility. Differences in the average quantitative data of the characteristics of the results of the crosses were statistically analyzed using the t-test at the 5% level. Qualitative variable data iv from each combination of crosses were compared between the results of interspecific crossing and self-pollination. Based on the results of this research, From 25 cross breeding combinations, success was obtained on 11 cross breeding combinations. The level of compatibility was obtained in the selfing combination of 5 species used with a percentage of 100% and interspecific crossing of P. pubescens (PPB-68154-04) x P. angulata (PAN-69281) with a percentage of 51.28%. The success of crossing at the partial incompatibility level was found in P. angulata (PAN-69281) x P. ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2) with a percentage of 28.94%, P. pubescens (PPB-68154- 04) x P. ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2) with a percentage of 35.48%, P. pruinosa (PPN+3101) x P. angulata (PAN-69281) with a percentage of 14.28 %, and P. pruinosa (PPN+3101) x P. ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2) with a percentage of 11.76%. While the full incompatibility level is found in crossing of P. angulata (PAN69281) x P. pubescens (PPB-68154-04) with a percentage of 7.69% and percentage of 0% are in the crossing of P. angulata (PAN-69281) x P. pruinosa (PPN+3101), P. peruviana (PPV-45311-03) x P. angulata (PAN-69281), P. peruviana (PPV-45311-03) x P. pubescens (PPB-68154-04), P. peruviana (PPV45311-03) x P. pruinosa (PPN+3101), P. pubescens (PPB-68154-04) x P. pruinosa (PPN+3101), P. peruviana (PPV-45311-03) x P. ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2), P. pruinosa (PPN+3101) x P. pubescens (PPB-68154-04), P. pruinosa (PPN+3101) x P. ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2), P. ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2) x P. angulata (PAN-69281), P. ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2) x P. pubescens (PPB-68154-04), P. ixocarpa (PIX-4418-2) x P. pruinosa (PPN+3101)

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: 052104
Subjects: 300 Social sciences > 338 Production > 338.1 Agriculture > 338.16 Production efficiency
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: Unnamed user with username dedyiskandar
Date Deposited: 23 Oct 2021 05:45
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2022 07:38
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/185369
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