"FORTIFIKASI MINYAK BUAH MERAH PANDANACEAE PADA PAKAN STANDAR TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN KUALITAS DAGING IKAN NILA GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) "

Renyaan, Albert Willem Agustinus and Prof. Dr. Ir. Eddy Suprayitno,, MS and Prof. Dr. Aulanni’am,, drh., DES and Dr. Ir. Anik Martinah Hariati,, M.Sc (2021) "FORTIFIKASI MINYAK BUAH MERAH PANDANACEAE PADA PAKAN STANDAR TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN KUALITAS DAGING IKAN NILA GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) ". Doctor thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Buah merah marga Pandanaceae menghasilkan minyak, disebut minyak buah merah (red fruit oil, RFO) selain mengandung senyawa antioksidan dan bioaktif juga mengandung asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh ( asam lemak esesnsial) serta mengandung berbagai vitamin dan mineral yang sangat bermanfaat bagi kesehatan dan pertumbuhan manusia maupun hewan. Kandungan asam lemak jenuh antara lain asam palmitat, asam stearat, asam laurat, asam miristat, dan asam palmitoleat sedangkan asam lemak esensial berupa asam oleat (C18:1ω-9), asam linoleat (C18:2ω6), asam lenolenat (C18:3ω3). Senyawa bioaktif meliputi α-karoten, β-karoten, β-kriptosantin, dan α- tokoferol. Peningkatan produksi perikanan budidaya sangat tergantung pada pakan namun biaya pakan tinggi yakni 60 – 70 % dari biaya produksi, dikarenakan minyak ikan dan cumi sebagai bahan baku sangat mahal. Sehingga diperlukan bahan pengganti yang berasal dari bahan lokal, salah satu bahan lokal yang diduga berpotensi untuk itu adalah minyak buah merah (MBM) marga Pandanaceae asal Papua dan Papua Barat. Penelitian ini menggunakan MBM kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits dan Mengkin asal Manokwari Papua Barat. Dari ketiga minyak kultivar tersebut yang dipilih untuk difortifikasi kedalam pakan standar seri T 78-2 (PSs.T 78-2) adalah MBM kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensisi), karena berdasarkan hasil perhitungan nilai rendemen memiliki nilai rendemen tertinggi dibandingkan dengan kultivar Edewewits dan Mengkin. Benih ikan nila GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) sebagai hewan uji berukuran panjang badan 9 - 10 cm dan bobot badan 9,5 – 10 gram/ ekor, asal Balai Benih Ikan Air Tawar Pasuruan Jawa Timur. Penelitian dilakuan dari bulan April 2016 hingga Januari 2020. Dilakukan empat tahap; tahap pertama: Karakterisasi tanaman, ekstraksi minyak, menghitung rendemen dari kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits dan Mengkin serta analisis DNA. Tahap kedua: Karakterisasi asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh (asam lemak esensial) ketiga minyak buah merah tersebut, tahap ketiga: Fortifikasi 10 mL, 15 mL, 30 mL MBM kultivar Menja pada pakan standar seri T 78-2 (PSs. T 78-2) dan di uji secara in vitro, tahap keempat: Pakan difortifikasi MBM di uji secara in vivo pada benih ikan nila GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker). Penelitian tahap pertama; karakterisasi tanaman bertujuan untuk mengetahui ciri fisik tanaman secara morfologi, ekstraksi MBM untuk digunakan pada penelitian selanjutnya, menghitung nilai rendemen untuk mengetahui kultivar mana yang nilai rendemennya tertinggi yang dipilih untuk difortifikasi kedalam PSs T 78-2; analisis DNA bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah kultivar Menja termasuk spesies Pandanus Conoideus Lam. atau tidak.Tahap kedua: bertujuan untuk mengetahui komponen dan kandungan asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenih yang terkandung di dalam MBM dari ketiga kultivar tersebut. Tahap ketiga: dilakukan uji in vitro bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah pakan difortifikasi MBM kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensisi) dengan dosis 10 mL, 15 mL dan 30 mL/kg pakan standar seri T 78-2 mana yang lebih baik. Tahap keempat: bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh masing-masing perlakuan terhadap laju pertambahan bobot harian dan laju pertumbuhan panjang badan harian (LPPBH), rasio konversi pakan (feed convertion ratio, FCR), efisiensi pakan (feed efficiency, FE) dan keberlangsungan hidup (survival rate, SR) benih ikan nila GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) dan meningkatkan kualitas daging ikan nila GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker). Juga apakah daging ikan nila GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) mengandung komponen asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh (asam lemak esensial). Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian adalah observasi dan eksperimen. Penelitian dilakukan 4 tahap yakni tahap pertama; karakterisasi tanaman, ekstraksi MBM, menghitung rendemen, analisis DNA. Karakterisasi tanaman dilakuan terhadap kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits dan Mengkin, ekstraksi MBM kultivar (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits dan Mengkin; ekstraksi dilakukan secara tradisional. Menghitung rendemen kultivar (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits dan Mengkin; perhitungan rendemen bedasarkan berat buah dan bulir. Analisis DNA: metode Bacode DNA, menggunakan primer matK dan rbcL. Tahap kedua; karakterisasi asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh MBM kultivar (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits dan Mengkin menggunakan Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) juga menganalisi kandungan gizi yakni kadar air metode Toluene, abu metode Gravimetri, lemak metode Ekstraksi Sokhlet, protein metode Kjedahl, serat kasar metode Gravimetri, Peroksida metode Volumetri, FFA metode Volumetri, Ca, Fe dan Na metode Atomic Absorbenc Spectrophotometri (AAS) dan total karoten metode Spektrofotometri. Tahap ketiga: uji in vitro terhapad Pdif MBM dosis 10 mL, 15 mL dan 30 mL/kg pakan standar seri T 78-2, meliputi protein metode Kjedahl, lemak metode Gravimetri, karbohdrat metode Iodometri, air metode Toluene (AOAC 18 th Ed.2005 Ch.4p2), abu metode Gravimetri, serat kasat metode gravimetri, peroksida metode Titrasi (AOAC 16 th.Ed.1995), energi, tio babutiric acid metode Kusrahayu et al, ( 2009). Tahap keempat: pakan standar seri T 78-2 tanpa difortifikasi MBM (P0, sebagai kontrol), Pdif-MBM dosis 10 mL/ kg pakan standar seri T 78-2 (P1), dosis 15 mL/ kg pakan standar seri T 78-2 (P2) dan dosis 30 mL/ kg pakan standar seri T 78-2 (P3) di uji in Vivo pada benih ikan nila GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) selama empat bulan; satu bulan adaptasi pakan dan tiga bulan efektif pemeliharaan. Dilakukan analisis komponen dan kandungan asam lemak pada daging segar benih ikan nila GIFT pada P0, P1, P2 dan P3. Dan analisis suhu, pH dan DO akuarium pagi dan sore. Hasil penelitian tahap pertama; menunjukan bahwa kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensis), Edewewits dan Mengkin memiliki kesamaan dan perbedaan ciri-ciri fisik. Ekstraksi MBM oleh masyarakat lokal dilakukan menggunakan metode rendering basah (wet rendering) secara tradisional. Hasil perhitungan berdasarkan buah dan bulir; kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensis) memiliki rendemen lebih tinggi yaitu 3,77 % dan 11,73 % dari kultivar Edewewits 2,96 % dan 10,04 %; Mengkin 3,47 % dan 10,05; hasil analisis DNA menunjukan bahwa kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensis) spesies: Pandanus austrosinensis. Hasil penelitian tahap kedua; komponen asam lemak jenuh dan asam lemak tidak jenuh (asam lemak esensial) pada MBM kultivar Menja berdasarkan analisis GC-MS mengandung: (1) O-Xylene dan p-Xylene kadar 0,06 %, (2) asam laurat (Dodecanoic acid) 0,04 %, (3) 1,3,5,7,9-Pentaehtyl bicyclo [5,3,1] pentasiloxane) Benzoic acid 0,06 %; asam Pirrole-2-karboksilat (Pyrrole-2- carboxylic asid ), asam Miristat (Tetradecanoic acid) dan asam Tiosulfat (Thiosulfuric acid) 0,04 %; (4) Spiro [4,4] nonane-1,6-dione 0,02 %; (5) Cyclohexane, 1,5-Diisopropyl-2,3- Dimethyl 0,02 %; (6) 1-Vinyl-1-Cyclopropyl methyl eter 0,02 %; (7) 5,6,8,9-Tetramethoxy-2-methylpepero (3,4,5-JK)-9, 10- dihydrophenanthracene -9,10-diol 0,02 %; (8) asam Miristat (Tetradecanoic acid) 0,04 %; (9) Pyrrole-2carboxylic acid 0,04 %; (10) 1,3-Diphenyl- 1,3,5- Tetramethyl -Cyclotrisiloxane 0,48 %; (11) 2-(dimethylamino)-3-phenylbenzo [b] thipene 0,40 %; (12) 9,9,10,10-Tetramethyl-9,10-Disila -9,10- Dihydroanthracene 0,48 %; (13) Dihydrobenzo [b] flouranthene 0,07 %; (14) Benzaldehide, [[4-(dimethylamino) phenyl] azo] 0,07 %; (15) 4-phenyl-7-methyl-9-m Nitro-4R-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,5- benzodiazepin-2-one 0,07 %; (16) Thiosulfuric acid 0,04 %; (10); (17) 2-methoxy- 3,8-dioxocephalotax-1-ene 0,26 %; (18) 6,7-bis (trimethylsily)-4-methoxy-1- ajabiphenylene 0,26 % (19) asam pentanoat (Pentadecanoic acid) 0,16 %; (20) 1,3-Dioxolane,4-ethyl-5 -octyl-2,2-bis (triflouromethyl), trans 0,20 %; (21) 1,3- Dioxolane,4-ethyl-5 -octyl-2,2-bis (triflouromethyl), cis 0,20 %; (22) asam palmitat (n-Hexadecanoic acid )10,45 %; (23) asam stearat (Octadecanoic acid) 1,21 %; (24) Pipercollosine [(2E,4E)-N-isobutyl-9-(3,4-methylene dioxyphenyl) nona-2,4- diamide 0,26 %; (25) 7 (P-Methoxyphenacyl) Xanthopterin 0,26 %; (26) 1,2- Benzisothiasole, 3-(hexahydro-1H-azepin-1-yl-,1,1-dioxide) 0,20 %; (27) asam oleat (oleic acid) 0,20 %; (28) 2-Chloroethyl linoleate, 10,13-Octadecadienoic acid, 9,12-Octadecaenoic acid 0,05 % dan 8-Octadecenoic acid (linoleat bentuk cis) 0,63 %; (29) 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl etster (asam oleat bentuk cis) 0,63 %; (30) asam oleat (oleic acid) 70,55 %; (31) 9-Octadecenoic acid (linoleat bentuk cis) 70,50 %; (32) Nonadecene 15,20 %. Pada MBM kultivar Edewewits mengandung: (1) p-Xylene dan o-Xylene 1,59 %; (2) Cis-3,4,5-Trimethoxy-B- methyl-B-NI 1,70 %; (3) 2-(p-methoxyphenyl)-4-phenyl-7,9-dimethyl-6,8-dioxo-2,3- dihydropyrimidino [5,6b]-1,5-oxazepine 0,39 %; (4) 2-acetoxy-4,7-dimethoxy-3-(3”- methoxyphenyloxy) isoflavanone 1,02 %; (5) 1,2-Benzisothiazole-3-propanoic acid 0,34 %; (6) Octadecanoic acid, 2-oxo-methyl ester atau methyl 2- oxooctadecanoate 1,22 %; (7) 9-alpha-hydroxy-17-beta-(trimethylsilyloxy)-4- androstene-3-methyl oxime 0,97 %; (8) Ethyl12,13-dihydro-2methoxy12-methyl- 13-oxo [1,3] benzodioxolo [5,6-C] phenanthridine-5-carboxulate 0,66 %; (9) Fendeline 0,36 %; (10) Naphthalene, 2,7-dimethyl 0,46 %; (11) Pentacosanoic acid, methyl ester 0,52 %; (12) Oxacyclohexadecan-2-one, 16 methyl 1,78 %; (13) n Hexadecanoid acid 72,00 %; (14) Octadecanoic acid 9,80 %; (15) Hexadecane, 2 methyl 2,47 %; (16) 1,2-Benzene-Dicarboxylic acid, ditridecyl ester 4,72 %. Pada MBM kultivar Mengkin mengandung: (1) p-Xylene 0,29 %; (2) o-Xylene 0,29 %; (3) asam oleat (oleic acid) 63,76 %; (4) asam oleat (oleic acid) 10,14 %; (5) 9- Octadecenoic acid 4,51 %; (6) 1H-Androst-16-eno [17,16-b] indol-3-ol, acetate (ester), (3-beta, 5-alpha) atau 3 beta (5-alpha)-acetoxy-androstano (17,16b) indole 0,31 %; (7) asam oleat (oleic acid) 0,60 %; (8) n-Hexadecanoic acid 16,56 %; (9) 9-Octadecenoic acid 16,56 %; (10) Eicosene 16,56 %; (11) 9-Eicosanoic acid 16,56%; Cyclotetracane 16,56 %. Kandungan gizi nutrisi MBM kultivar Menja (Pandanus austrosinensis): kadar air 0,71 %, kadar abu 0,18 %, dan 0,01%; kadar lemak 99,35 %; protein 0,04 %; FFA 33,04 %. Edewewits: air 0,46 %, abu 0,01 %, lemak 98,06 %; protein 0,04 %; FFA 33,65 % dan Mengkin: air 0,40 %, abu 0,01 %, lemak 98,46 %; protein 0,04 %; FFA 36,65 %. Kandungan mineral kultivar Menja: Ca 57,86 ppm; Fe 3,22 ppm; Na 5,73 ppm. Edewewits: Ca 6,22 ppm; Fe 1,58 ppm; Na 4,70 ppm. Mengkin: Ca 7,04 ppm; Fe 1,54 ppm; Na 4,31 ppm. Sehingga ketiga minyak tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai sumber Ca, Fe dan Na bagi kebutuhan nila GIFT untuk pertumbuhannya. Total karoten tertinggi pada MBM kultivar Menja sebesar 8223, 5 μg/g; Edewewits 6888,35 μg/g dan Mengkin 6447,90 μg/g. Dan nila peroksida 4,91; 4,95; 2,96 miliekuivalen/1000 gram. Sehingga minyak dari ketiga kultivar buah merah tersebut dapat digunakan sebagai sumber karotenoid bagi nila GIFT maupun ikan air tawar (freshwater fish) lainnya. Hasil penelitian tahap ketiga: hasil uji in vitro memperlihatkan bahwa ; PSs T 78-2 dif-MBM dosis 10 mL (P1) adalah yang terbaik dari P0 ( kontrol), P2 dan P3 karena mengandung protein dan energi yang tinggi, yakni sebesar 27.32 ± 0.71 persen b/b dan energi 354.4950 k.cal/100 g. Pakan yang mengandung protein tinggi dan energi tinggi sangat berperan dalam memacu laju pertumbuhan ikan air tawar (fresh water fish) termasuk pertumbuhan ikan nila GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker). Nilai TBA 0,3791 mg/malonaldehida/kg Pdif-MBM rendah sehingga terjadi ketengikan pada PSs T 78-2 dif-MBM. Penelitian tahap keempat; rerata laju pertambahan bobot badan harian pada setiap perlakuan: P0 sebesar 2,20 ± 0,0495 , P1 2,55 ± 0,1190, P2 2,37 ± 0,2950 dan P3 2,31 ± 0,0225 gram/hari. Anova menunjukan bahwa perlakuan P0, P1, P2 dan P3 berpengaruh terhadap, uji Duncan P1 lebih berpengaruh terhadap laju pertambahan bobot badan harian. Dan uji polinomial menunjukan bahwa dosis 15 mL/kg pakan seri T 78-2 pada P2 tidak tepat, dosis yang tepat adalah 15,60 mL MBM untuk memacu Laju pertumbuhan panjang badan harian. Rerata laju pertumbuhan panjang badan harian; perlakuan P0 lebih tinggi yaitu sebesar 0,51 ± 0,02 cm/hari dari perlakuan P1, P2 dan P3 nilai masing-masing 0,48 ± 0,01 cm/hari; 0,48 ± 0,02 cm/hari; 0,48 ± 0,04 cm/hari. Survival rate, feed concertion ratio; anova menunjukan bahwa perlakuan P0, P1, P2 dan P3 berpengaruh terhadap FCR; uji Duncan menunjukan bahwa P1 yang lebih berpengaruh yaitu sebesar 1,76 dan terendah P0 yaitu 1,51. Jadi semua perlakuan cukup efisien. Efisiensi pakan; anova ternyata bahwa perlakuan P0, P1, P2 dan P3 berpengaruh terhadap efisiensi pakan, uji Duncan ternyata P1 yang lebih berpengaruh yaitu sebesar 58,3967 % dan terendah P0 yaitu sebesar 50,2867 %. Uji polinomial menunjukan bahwa dosis 15 mL MBM/ kg pakan standar seri T 78-2 tidak tepat tetapi yang tepat adalah dosis 16,73 mL MBM/ kg pakan standar seri 78-2. Kandungan asam lemak jenuh dan tidak jenuh pada P0; asam lemak jenuh: asam palmitat (Hexadecanoic acid) 32,73 %, 7- Hexadecyne 10,08 %, asam lignoserat (Tetracosanoic acid) 9,71 % dan Dikoh- lensaeure,ditert buty ester 9,97 %. Asam lemak tidak jenuh: asam undesilenat (cis 10-Undecenoic acid) 25,94 %. P1; Asam lemak jenuh: asam palmitat (Palmitoleic acid) 32,01 %, asam hepatanoat 15,57 %. Asam lemak tidak jenuh: asam oleat (Oleic acid/cis9-Octadecenoic acid) 24,56 %. P2; asam lemak jenuh: asam palmitat (Palmitoleic acid) 38,35 %. Asam lemak tidak jenuh: asam undesilenat (cis 10-Undecenoic acid) 30,70 %. P3; Asam lemak jenuh: asam palmitat (Palmitoleic acid) 34,26 %. Asam lemak tidak jenuh: asam linoleat (cis 9,12- Octadecenoic acid/omega-6) 18,86 % dan asam undesilenat (cis 10-Undecenoic acid) 4,28 %. Kualitas air selama 84 hari pemeliharaan baik pagi maupun sore hari masih memenuhi syarat bagi pertumbuhan benih ikan GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker)

English Abstract

Red fruit of Pandanaceae produce oil known as the red fruit oil ( red fruit oil, RFO). Other than containing antioxidant and bioactive compounds, it also contain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (essential fatty acids) and contain a variety of vitamins and minerals that are beneficial for the health and growth of humans and animals. The content of saturated fatty acids includes palmitic acid, stearic acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, and palmitoleic acid, while the essential fatty acids are oleic acid (C18:1ω9), linoleic acid (C18:2ω6), lenolenic acid (C18:3ω3). Bioactive compounds include α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptosantin, and α-tocopherol. Improvement in aquaculture production would highly dependent on its feed, however feed costs was high, namely 60-70% of production costs, because fish oil and squid as its raw materials were very expensive. Therefore, substitute material from local ingredients was highly needed. One of the local ingredients considered to be highly potential is the red fruit oil (RFO) of the Pandanaceae family from Papua and West Papua. This study used Menja cultivar (Pandanus austrosinensis), Edewewits and Mengkin from Manokwari, West Papua. From these three cultivar, natural oil selected for fortification in standard feed T 78-2 series (PSs.T 78-2) is the Menja cultivar (Pandanus austrosinensisi), because it has the highest yield value compared to Edewewits and Mengkin cultivars based on the calculation of the yield value. Tilapia GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) seeds as tested animals were used under the requirement of body length of 9-10 cm and body weight of 9.5-10 grams/fish, taken from the Freshwater Fish Seed Center of Pasuruan, East Java. This study was conducted from April 2016 to January 2020. It was carried out in four stages. First stage consists of plants characterization, oil extraction, calculating yield value of Menja (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits and Mengkin cultivars also conduct DNA analysis. Second stage consist of characterizing saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (essential fatty acids) of the three red fruit oils. Third stage consist of fortification of 10 mL, 15 mL, and 30 mL RFO of Menja cultivar on T 78-2 standard feed (PSs. T 78-2) and testing it in vitro. Fourth stage consist of fortified RFO feed tested in vivo on tilapia GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) seeds. The first phase of research consist of plant characterization aimed to determine the physical characteristics of the plant morphologically, RFO extraction to be used in the next stages, calculating the yield value to determine which cultivar has the highest yield value selected for fortification into PSs T 78-2 and DNA analysis aimed to determine whether Menja cultivar belongs to Pandanus conoideus Lam species or not. The second stage consist of analysis aimed to determine the components and content of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids contained in the RFO of the three cultivars. The third stage consist of an in vitro test conducted to determine which of the RFO fortified feed of Menja cultivar (Pandanus austrosinensisi) at a dose of 10 mL, 15 mL and 30 mL/kg of the standard feed T 78-2 series was better. The fourth stage consist of analysis to determine the effect of each treatment on the daily body weight gain and daily body length gain (LPPBH), feed conversion ratio (feed convertion ratio, FCR), feed efficiency (feed efficiency, FE) and survival rate (survival rate, SR) of tilapia GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) seeds and improving the quality of tilapia GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) fish. It was also done to analyze whether tilapia GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) contain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (essential fatty acids). Method used in this research consist of observation and experiment. This research was conducted in 4 stages, the first stage consist of plant characterization, RFO (MBM) extraction, yield value calculation, and DNA analysis. Plant characterization was carried out on Menja (Pandanus austrosinensis), Edewiwits and Mengkin cultivars; extraction of RFO from Menja (Pandanus austrosinensis), Edewewits and Mengkin cultivars; extraction was done traditionally. Calculating the yield value of Menja (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits and Mengkin cultivars was done based on fruit and grain weight. DNA analysis was done using Bacode DNA method, with matK and rbcL primers. The second stage consist of characterization of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in RFO of Menja (Pandanus austrosinensisi), Edewewits and Mengkin cultivars using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) also analyzing its nutritional content with Toluene method for water content, Gravimetric method for ash content, Sokhlet extraction method for fat content, Kjedahl method for protein content, Gravimetric method for crude fiber content, Volumetric method for peroxide content, Volumetric method for FFA, Atomic Absorbenc Spectrophotometry (AAS) method for Ca, Fe and Na content and spectrophotometric method for total carotene content. The third stage consist of in vitro testing using Pdif RFO 10 mL, 15 mL and 30 mL/kg standard feed T 78- 2 series, with Kjedahl method for protein content, Gravimetry method for fat content, iodometry method for carbohydrates content, method Toluene (AOAC 18 th Ed. 2005 Ch.4p2) for water content, Gravimetric method for ash content, gravimetric method visible fiber, titration method (AOAC 16 th.Ed.1995) for peroxide, method Kusrahayu et al, (2009) for energy and tio babutiric acid. The fourth stage consist of creating standard feed T 78-2 series without fortified RFO (P0, as control), Pdif-RFO at 10 mL/kg of standard feed T 78-2 series (P1), Pdif- RFO at 15 mL/kg of standard feed T 78-2 series (P2) and Pdif-RFO at 30 mL/kg of standard feed T 78-2 series (P3) were tested in vivo on tilapia GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) seeds for four months comprised of one month for feed adaptation and three months in experimental cultivation. Component analysis and fatty acid content were analyzed in fresh meat of tilapia GIFT seeds for P0, P1, P2 and P3. Temperature, pH and DO analysis of the aquarium was done every morning and evening. Results of the first stage of the research shows that the Menja (Pandanus austrosinensis), Edewewits and Mengkin cultivars have similar and different physical characteristics. RFO extraction by local people was done using wet rendering method traditionally. Yield value calculation was done based on fruit and pulp. The results shows that Menja cultivar ( Pandanus austrosinensis ) had higher yields value with 3.77% and 11.73% compared to Edewewits cultivar (2.96% and 10.04%) and Mengkin cultivars (3.47% and 10.05). DNA analysis showed that the Menja cultivar belongs to Pandanus austrosinensis. Results of the second stage of research shows saturated and unsaturated fatty acids (essential fatty acids) in RFO of Menja cultivar based on GC-MS analysis which contain (1) O-Xylene and p-Xylene levels of 0.06%, (2) lauric acid (Dodecanoic acid) 0.04%, (3) 1,3,5,7,9-Pentaehtyl bicyclo [5,3,1] pentasiloxane) Benzoic acid 0.06%; Pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid (Pyrrole-2- carboxylic acid), myristic acid (Tetradecanoic acid) and Thiosulfuric acid (Thiosulfuric acid) 0.04%; (4) Spiro [4,4] nonane-1,6-dione 0.02%; (5) Cyclohexane, 1,5-Diisopropyl-2,3-Dimethyl 0.02%; (6) 1-Vinyl-1-Cyclopropyl methyl ether 0.02%; (7) 5,6,8,9-Tetramethoxy-2-methylpepero(3,4,5-JK)-9, 10- dihydrophenanthracene-9,10-diol 0.02%; (8) myristic acid (Tetradecanoic acid) 0.04%; (9) Pyrrole-2carboxylic acid 0.04%; (10) 1,3-Diphenyl-1,3,5- Tetramethyl- Cyclotrisiloxane 0.48%; (11) 2-(dimethylamino)-3-phenylbenzo [b] thipene 0.40%; (12) 9,9,10,10-Tetramethyl-9,10-Disila-9,10- Dihydroanthracene 0.48%; (13) Dihydrobenzo [b] flouranthene 0.07%; (14) Benzaldehyde, [[4- (dimethylamino) phenyl] azo] 0.07%; (15) 4-phenyl-7-methyl-9-m Nitro-4R-2,3- dihydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepine-2-one 0.07%; (16) Thiosulfuric acid 0.04%; (10); (17) 2-methoxy-3,8-dioxocephalotax-1-ene 0.26%; (18) 6,7-bis (trimethylsily)-4-methoxy-1-ajabiphenylene 0.26% (19) pentanoic acid (Pentadecanoic acid) 0.16%; (20) 1,3-Dioxolane, 4-ethyl-5-octyl-2,2-bis (triflouromethyl), trans 0.20%; (21) 1,3-Dioxolane, 4-ethyl-5-octyl-2,2-bis (triflouromethyl), cis 0.20%; (22) palmitic acid ( n-Hexadecanoic acid ) 10.45%; (23) stearic acid (Octadecanoic acid) 1.21%; (24) Pipercollosine [(2E, 4E)-N-isobutyl-9- (3,4-methylene dioxyphenyl) nona-2,4-diamide 0.26%; (25) 7 (P- Methoxyphenacyl) Xanthopterin 0.26%; (26) 1,2-Benzisothiasole, 3-(hexahydro- 1H-azepin-1-yl-,1,1-dioxide) 0.20%; (27) oleic acid (oleic acid) 0.20%; (28) 2- Chloroethyl linoleate, 10,13-Octadecadienoic acid, 9,12-Octadecaenoic acid 0.05% and 8-Octadecenoic acid (cis-form linoleic) 0.63%; (29) 9-Octadecenoic acid methyl ester (cis form oleic acid) 0.63%; (30) oleic acid (oleic acid) 70.55%; (31) 9-Octadecenoic acid (linoleic cis form) 70.50%; (32) Nonadecene 15.20%. RFO of Edewewits cultivar contain (1) p-Xylene and o- Xylene 1.5 9%; (2) Cis-3,4,5-Trimethoxy-B-methyl-B-NI 1.70%; (3) 2-(p- methoxyphenyl)-4-phenyl-7,9-dimethyl-6,8-dioxo-2,3- dihydropyrimidino [5,6b]- 1,5-oxazepine 0.39%; (4) 2-acetoxy-4,7-dimethoxy-3- (3”-methoxyphenyloxy) isoflavanone 1.02%; (5) 1,2-Benzisothiazole-3-propanoic acid 0.34%; (6) Octadecanoic acid, 2-oxo-methyl ester or methyl 2-oxooctadecanoate 1.22%; (7) 9-alpha-hydroxy-17-beta-(trimethylsilyloxy)- 4-androstene-3-methyl oxime 0.97%; (8) Ethyl12,13-dihydro-2methoxy12- methyl-13-oxo [1,3] benzodioxolo [5,6-C] phenanthridine-5-carboxulate 0.66%; (9) Fendeline 0.36%; (10) Naphthalene, 2,7-dimethyl 0.46%; (11) Pentacosanoic acid, methyl ester 0.52%; (12) Oxacyclohexadecan-2-one, 16 methyl 1.78%; (13) n Hexadecanoid acid 72.00%; (14) Octadecanoic acid 9.80%; (15) Hexadecane, 2 methyl 2.47%; (16) 1,2-Benzene-Dicarboxylic acid , ditridecyl ester 4.72%. RFO of Mengkin cultivar contain (1) p-Xylene 0.29 %; (2) o-Xylene 0.29%; (3) oleic acid (oleic acid) 63.76%; (4) oleic acid (oleic acid) 10.14%; (5) 9-Octadecenoic acid 4.51%; (6) 1H-Androst-16-eno [17,16-b] indole-3-ol, acetate (ester), (3-beta, 5-alpha) or 3 beta (5-alpha) -acetoxy-androstano (17.16b) indole 0.31%; (7) oleic acid (oleic acid) 0.60%; (8) n-Hexadecanoic acid 16.56%; (9) 9-Octadecenoic acid 16.56%; (10) Eicosene 16.56%; (11) 9-Eicosanoic acid 16.56%; Cyclotetracane 16.56%. The nutritional content of RFO from Menja cultivar (Pandanus austrosinensis) were water content 0.71%, ash content 0.18% and 0.01%, fat content 99.35%, protein content 0.04% and FFA 33.04%. Nutritional content of RFO from Edewewits cultivar were water content 0.46%, ash content 0.01%, fat content 98.06%, protein content 0.04% and FFA 33.65%. Nutritional content of RFO from Mengkin cultivar were water content 0.40%, ash content 0.01%, fat content 98.46%, protein content 0.04%, and FFA 36.65%. Mineral content from Menja cultivar were Ca 57.86 ppm, Fe 3.22 ppm, Na 5.73 ppm. Mineral content from Edewewits cultivar were Ca 6.22 ppm; Fe 1.58 ppm; 4.70 ppm Na. Last but not least the mineral content from Mengkin cultivar were Ca 7.04 ppm; Fe 1.54 ppm; 4.31 ppm Na. Thus these three oils can be used as Ca, Fe and Na sources for the growth of tilapia GIFT. The highest total carotene in RFO from Menja cultivar was 8223.5 μg/g while from Edewewits and Mengkin cultivars were 6888.35 μg/g and 6447.90 μg/g respectively. Tilapia’s peroxide content were 4.91; 4.95; 2.96 milliequivalent/1000 gram. Thus, fruit oils from these three red fruit cultivars can be used as carotenoids source in tilapia GIFT and other freshwater fish. Results of the third stage of research shows that based on the in vitro test results, PSs T 78-2 dif-RFO dose 10 mL (P1) is the best treatment compared to P0 (control), P2 and P3 because it contains higher protein content and energy, that is 27.32 ± 0.71 percent w/w and energy of 354.4950 k.cal/100 g. Diets containing high protein and high energy play a very important role in spurring the growth of freshwater fish, including the growth of tilapia GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker). The TBA value of 0.3791 mg/malonaldehyde/kg Pdif-RFO is low thus there was rancidity in the PSs T 78-2 dif-RFO. Results of the fourth stage of research shows average daily body weight gain for each treatment, P0 2.20±0.0495, P1 2.55±0.1190, P2 2.37±0.2950 and P3 2.31±0.0225 grams/day. ANOVA results shows that P0, P1, P2 and P3 had brought significant effect on fish growth, while Duncan test results shows that P1 had more significant effect toward daily body weight gain. Polynomial test results showed that 15 mL/kg of standard feed T 78-2 series in treatment P2 was inaccurate, the accurate dose was 15.60 mL RFO to stimulate the daily body length growth. Average daily body length gain showed that P0 brought better results with 0.51 ± 0.02 cm/day than P1, P2 and P3, with 0.48±0.01 cm/day, 0.48±0.02 cm/day, 0.48±0.04 cm/day respectively. Regarding survival rate and feed conversion ratio, ANOVA results showed that P0, P1, P2 and P3 had significant effect on FCR. Duncan test results showed that effect of P1 was more significant with 1.76 and the lowest result was P0 with 1.51. Thus, all treatments were considered to be quite efficient. Regarding feed efficiency, ANOVA results showed that P0, P1, P2 and P3 had an effect on feed efficiency. Duncan test results also showed that P1 had more significant effect with 58.3967% while the lowest was P0 with 50.2867%. Polynomial test results showed that the dose of 15 mL RFO/kg standard feed T 78-2 series was inaccurate and the accurate dose was 16.73 mL of RFO/kg standard feed T 78-2 series. P0 contain several saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. For saturated fatty acids, it contain palmitic acid (Hexadecanoic acid) 32.73%, 7-Hexadecyne 10.08%, lignoseric acid (Tetracosanoic acid) 9.71% and Dikoh-lensaeure, ditert buty ester 9.97%. For unsaturated fatty acids, it contain undesilenic acid (cis 10-Undecenoic acid ) 25.94%. For P1, its saturated fatty acids contain palmitic acid (Palmitoleic acid) 32.01%, hepatoic acid 15.57% while its unsaturated fatty acids contain oleic acid (Oleic acid/cis9-Octadecenoic acid) 24.56%. For P2, its saturated fatty acids contain palmitic acid (Palmitoleic acid) 38.35% while its unsaturated fatty acids contain undesilenic acid (cis 10-Undecenoic acid) 30.70%. For P3, its saturated fatty acids contain palmitic acid (Palmitoleic acid) 34.26% while its unsaturated fatty acids contain linoleic acid (cis 9,12-Octadecenoic acid/omega-6) 18.86% and undesilenic acid (cis 10-Undecenoic acid) 4.28%. Water quality for 84 days of experiment was maintain to meets the requirement for tilapia GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker) seeds both in the morning and evening

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor)
Identification Number: 0621080009
Uncontrolled Keywords: Buah Merah Pandanaceae, Asam Lemak, Pertumbuhan, Kualitas Daging, Nila GIFT (Oreochromis niloticus Bleeker),Red Fruit of Pandanaceae, Fatty Acids, Growth, Quality, Tilapia GIFT
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 639 Hunting, fishing & conservation
Divisions: S2/S3 > Doktor Ilmu Perikanan dan Kelautan, Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan
Depositing User: Unnamed user with username verry
Date Deposited: 22 Oct 2021 03:17
Last Modified: 24 Feb 2022 01:46
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/184905
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