Parameter Genetik Karakter Hasil dan Komponen Hasil Tanaman Bunga Matahari (Helianthus annuus L.)

Damayanti, Puput Ariska (2020) Parameter Genetik Karakter Hasil dan Komponen Hasil Tanaman Bunga Matahari (Helianthus annuus L.). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Bunga matahari (Helianthus annuus L.) merupakan tanaman penghasil minyak nabati yang mempunyai banyak manfaat dalam bidang industri pangan dan non pangan. Permasalahan serius mengenai pasokan biji bunga matahari dari dalam negeri, selain kualitas yang rendah juga mengenai kuantitas yang belum dapat diandalkan. Sehingga untuk memenuhi kebutuhan di dalam negeri harus mengimpor biji dan minyak bunga matahari. Salah satu upaya dalam perbaikan kualitas dan kuantitas bunga matahari adalah dengan perbaikan genetik melalui pemuliaan tanaman. Dalam pemuliaan tanaman, pendugaan parameter genetik harus dilakukan sebelum perbaikan sifat dilaksanakan untuk meningkatkan hasil suatu tanaman. Dengan menduga parameter genetik, pemulia dapat mengetahui karakter-karakter yang memiliki potensi yang baik dan banyak dipengaruhi oleh faktor genetik untuk diwariskan dalam suatu populasi tanaman sehingga dapat meningkatkan efisiensi seleksi dalam kegiatan pemuliaan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari parameter genetik pada karakter tanaman bunga matahari. Hipotesis penelitian ini adalah terdapat satu atau lebih karakter yang mempunyai keragaman genetik yang luas pada tanaman bunga matahari dan nilai heritabilitas yang tinggi pada karakter tanaman bunga matahari. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Lahan Percobaan Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya yang berlokasi di Kelurahan Jatimulyo, Kecamatan Lowokwaru, Kota Malang dengan ketinggian tempat ± 460 mdpl. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April hingga Agustus 2017. Bahan yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah 29 genotip bunga matahari koleksi Laboratorium Pemuliaan Tanaman Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya Malang yaitu HA 1, HA 5, HA 6, HA 7, HA 8, HA 9, HA 10, HA 11, HA 12, HA 18, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 25, HA 26, HA 27, HA 28, HA 30, HA 36, HA 39, HA 40, HA 42, HA 43, HA 44, HA 45, HA 46, HA 47, HA 48 dan HA 50. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) dengan perlakuan 29 genotip bunga matahari diulang sebanyak tiga kali sehingga diperoleh 87 satuan percobaan. Pengamatan yang dilakukan terdiri dari pengamatan karakter kuantitatif dan karakter kualitatif. Karakter kuantitatif yang diamati yaitu tinggi tanaman (cm), jumlah daun (helai), umur inisiasi bunga (hss), umur berbunga (hss), diameter bunga pita (cm), diameter bunga tabung (cm), jumlah kuntum bunga (satuan), umur panen (hss), pajang biji (cm), lebar biji (cm), jumlah biji per tanaman, jumlah biji bernas per tanaman, jumlah biji hampa per tanaman, bobot total biji per tanaman (g) dan bobot 100 biji (g). Karakter kualitatif yaitu bentuk mahkota bunga, bentuk kelopak bunga, tipe percabangan, antosianin kepala putik, warna biji dan bentuk biji. Data hasil pengamatan kuantitatif dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam (ANOVA). Kemudian menghitung parameter genetik meliputi nilai ragam lingkungan, genetik, dan fenotip, koefisien keragaman genetik dan heritabilitas. Sedangkan hasil pengamatan data kualitatif dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif yaitu dengan menampilkan dalam bentuk deskripsi dan gambar. ii Hasil penelitian menunjukkan karakter yang memiliki keragaman genetik yang luas adalah jumlah kuntum bunga, sedangkan karakter tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, umur inisiasi bunga, umur berbunga, diameter bunga pita, diameter bunga tabung, umur panen, panjang biji, lebar biji, jumlah biji per tanaman, jumlah biji bernas per tanaman, jumlah biji hampa per tanaman, bobot total biji per tanaman dan bobot 100 biji memiliki keragaman genetik yang sempit. Nilai duga heritabilitas dalam arti luas menunjukkan semua karakter yang diamati termasuk dalam kriteria tinggi. Pengamatan karakter kualitatif, keragaman terdapat pada semua karakter yang diamati meliputi bentuk mahkota bunga, bentuk kelopak bunga, tipe percabangan, antosianin kepala putik, warna biji dan bentuk biji.

English Abstract

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is a vegetable oil producing plant that has many benefits in the food and non-food industries. Serious problems regarding the supply of sunflower seeds from within the country, in addition to low quality is also about the quantity that can not be relied upon. So to meet domestic needs, we must import sunflower seeds and oil. One effort to improve the quality and quantity of sunflower is genetic improvement through plant breeding. In plant breeding, estimation of genetic parameters must be carried out before improvement of properties is carried out to increase yield of a plant. By estimating genetic parameters, breeders can find out characters that have good potential and are much influenced by genetic factors to be inherited in a plant population so as to increase selection efficiency in breeding activities. This research aims to study genetic parameters in the character of sunflower plants. The hypothesis of this study is that there are one or more characters that have wide genetic diversity in sunflower plants and high heritability values in sunflower plant characters. The research was conducted in the experimental field of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya, located in Jatimulyo Village, Lowokwaru District, Malang City with height of ± 460 meters above sea level. The research was conducted on April until August 2017. The materials used in this research were 29 genotypes of sunflower collection from the Plant Breeding Laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya Malang, that is HA 1, HA 5, HA 6, HA 7, HA 8, HA 9, HA 10 , HA 11, HA 12, HA 18, HA 21, HA 22, HA 24, HA 25, HA 26, HA 27, HA 28, HA 36, HA 39, HA 40, HA 42, HA 43, HA 44, HA 45, HA 46, HA 47, HA 48 and HA 50. The research used a Randomized Block Design (RBD), with the treatment of 29 genotypes of sunflowers repeated three times to obtain 87 experimental units. Observations made on quantitative characters include plant height (cm), number of leaves (strands), age of flower initiation (hss), age of flowering (hss), ribbon flower diameter (cm), diameter of tubular flowers (cm), number of flower buds (flowers) unit), harvest age (hss), display seeds (cm), seed width (cm), number of seeds per plant, number of pithy seeds per plant, number of empty seeds per plant, total weight of seeds per plant (g) and weight of 100 seeds (g). Qualitative characters are flower petal shape, flower petal shape, branching type, anthocyanin pistil, seed color and seed shape. Data from quantitative observations were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Then calculate genetic parameters including values of environmental variability, genetic, and phenotype, coefficient of genetic diversity and heritability. While the qualitative data observations were analyzed using descriptive methods, namely by displaying in the form of descriptions and images. The results showed that the characters that had wide genetic diversity were the number of flower buds, while the plant height, number of leaves, age of flower initiation, age of flowering, ribbon flower diameter, tube flower diameter, harvest age, seed length, seed width, number of seeds per plants, number of pithy seeds per plant, number of empty seeds per plant, total weight of seeds per plant and weight of 100 seeds have a narrow genetic diversity. The estimated value of heritability in a broad sense indicates that all characters observed are included in the high criteria. Observation of qualitative characters, diversity found in all characters observed included the shape of the flower crown, the shape of the flower petals, branching type, anthocyanin pistil, seed color and seed shape.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2020/77/052003731
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting > 631.52 Production of seeds, bulbs, tubers, new varieties > 631.523 Development of new varieties > 631.523 3 Agricultural genetics
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono Wahyono
Date Deposited: 13 Aug 2020 01:59
Last Modified: 11 Apr 2023 02:23
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/181144
[thumbnail of DALAM MASA EMBARGO] Text (DALAM MASA EMBARGO)
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