Pengaruh Aplikasi Bioaktivator MOL dan Trichoderma sp. terhadap Proses Dekomposisi Limbah Rami dan Sifat Biologi Tanah

Puteri, Ummi Amalina (2019) Pengaruh Aplikasi Bioaktivator MOL dan Trichoderma sp. terhadap Proses Dekomposisi Limbah Rami dan Sifat Biologi Tanah. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Kebutuhan akan serat tekstil mengalami peningkatan yang cukup tinggi. Tanaman rami merupakan tanaman tahunan yang batangnya dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai serat bahan baku produk tekstil. 13% batang segar tanaman rami yang dipanen merupakan serat yang dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai bahan tekstil, sedangkan 87% sisanya merupakan limbah tanaman rami. Kandungan limbah tanaman rami memiliki kandungan unsur hara cukup tinggi yaitu unsur K (1,02%), Ca (0,93%), Mg (0,40%), dan P (0,19%) rasio C/N sebesar 45 dan kandungan lignin sebesar 31,08% dan kandungan holoselulose sebesar 63,78%. Potensi limbah tanaman rami mencapai 90 ton limbah/ha/tahun, sehingga dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pupuk organik untuk menambahkan unsur hara pada budidaya tanaman rami. Pengomposan pada limbah rami penting untuk dilakukan agar kandungan unsur pada limbah rami termineralisasi menjadi unsur hara yang tersedia bagi tanaman. Kandungan rasio C/N, lignin, dan selulosa yang cukup tinggi mengakibatkan limbah rami memerlukan waktu yang lama untuk terdekomposisi. Penggunaan bioaktivator MOL dan Trichoderma sp. diharapkan dapat mempercepat proses dekomposisi limbah rami. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan bioaktivator Mikroorganisme Lokal (MOL) dan Trichoderma sp terhadap proses dekomposisi limbah tanaman rami dan menganalisis pengaruh aplikasi kompos limbah tanaman rami terhadap sifat biologi tanah berupa total populasi bakteri dan total mikroorganisme selulolitik. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Oktober 2018–Maret 2019 di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat (Balittas). Uji Laboratorium dilakukan di Laboratorium Kimia Tanah Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya dan di Laboratorium Bioproses Balittas. Penelitian dilakukan 2 tahap. Pada tahap 1 merupakan pembuatan 2 kompos yaitu kompos A yang merupakan kompos limbah rami dengan bioaktivator MOL dan kompos B yang merupakan kompos limbah rami dengan bioaktivator Trichoderma sp. Penelitian tahap 2 merupakan aplikasi kompos limbah rami (kompos A dan kompos B) pada tanah. Pada penelitian tahap 2 menggunanakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) dengan masing-masing 5 perlakuan dan 5 kali ulangan. Adapun perlakuan dalam penelitian ini yaitu K: kontrol (tanpa kompos), A1: Kompos A dosis 10 ton/ha, A2: Kompos A dosis 20 ton/ha, B1: Kompos B dosis 10 ton/ha, B2: Kompos B dosis 20 ton/ha. Parameter yang diamati pada penelitian tahap 1 meliputi : suhu, pH, rasio C/N, penyusutan berat, total populasi bakteri, dan total mikroorganisme selulolitik. Parameter pengamatan penelitian tahap 2 meliputi pH, C-Organik, total populasi bakteri, dan total mikroorganisme selulolitik. Data yang diperoleh dari tahap 2 dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis ragam (uji F) pada taraf 5%. Apabila terdapat pengaruh nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan bioaktivator MOL dan Trichoderma sp. mampu memepercepat proses dekomposisi. Rasio C/N pada kompos A mengalami penurunan dari 22,1 menjadi 9, sedangkan kompos B mengalami penurunan dari 21,6 menjadi 8,5 diikuti dengan penurunan berat basah kompos dan persentase penyusutan berat basah Kompos A sebesar 35% dan kompos B sebesar 28,33% selama satu bulan pengomposan. Total populasi bakteri pada kompos A lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kompos B yaitu sebesar 68,4 x 104 cfu/ml, namun, total mikroorganisme selulolitik kompos B lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan total mikroorganisme selulolitik kompos A sebesar 110,6 x 103 cfu/ml. Pengaplikasian kompos A dan kompos B pada tanah, berpengaruh nyata terhadap sifat biologi tanah yaitu populasi bakteri dan total mikroorganisme selulolitik. Perlakuan B2 menunjukkan hasil total populasi bakteri tertinggi yaitu 167 x 104 cfu/ml dan total mikroorganisme selulolitik tertinggi yaitu 116 x 103 cfu /ml.

English Abstract

The need for textile fiber has increased quite high. Ramie plants are annual plants whose trunks can be used as raw materials for textile products. 13% of the fresh stems of ramie plants harvested are fibers that can be used as textile materials, while the remaining 87% are ramie plant waste. The content of ramie plant waste has a high nutrient content, they are elements of K (1.02%), Ca (0.93%), Mg (0.40%), and P (0.19%) C / N ratio of 45 and lignin content of 31.08% and holocellulose content of 63.78%. Ramie waste has potention up to 90% tons/ha/years so that it can be used as organic fertilizer to add nutrients to the cultivation of ramie plants. Composting in ramie waste is important to do so that the elemental content in mineralized ramie waste becomes a nutrient available to plants. The content of C/N ratio, lignin, and cellulose is high enough to cause ramie waste takes a long time to decompose. The use of MOL bioactivators and Trichoderma sp. Bioactivators are expected to accelerate the decomposition process of ramie waste. This study aims to determine the effect of the addition of local microorganism bioactivators (MOL) and Trichoderma sp. on the decomposition process of ramie plant waste and analyze the effect of ramie plant compost application on the biological properties of soil in the form of total bacterial population and total cellulolytic microorganisms. This research was conducted in October 2018-March 2019 at the Research Institute for Sweeteners and Fiber Plants (Balittas). Laboratory tests are carried out at the Soil Chemistry Laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya and at the Bioprocess Laboratory in Balittas. The study was conducted in two stages. Stage 1 is the making of 2 compost, compost A which is a ramie compost with bioactivator MOL and compost B which is a ramie waste compost with bioactivator Trichoderma sp. Stage 2 is the application of ramie waste compost (compost A and compost B) on the soil. Stage 2 used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with each of the 5 treatments and 5 replications. The treatment in this study is K: control (without compost), A1: Compost A with dose of 10 tons/ha, A2: Compost A with dose of 20 tons/ha, B1: Compost B with dose of 10 tons/ha, B2: Compost B with dose 20 tons/ha. The parameters observed in stage 1 research included: temperature, pH, C/N ratio, weight shrinkage, total bacterial population, and total cellulolytic microorganisms. Parameters observed in stage 2 studies included pH, organic C, total bacterial population, and total cellulolytic microorganisms. Data obtained from stage 2 were analyzed using a variance analysis (F test) at the level of 5%. If there is a real effect, then it will be followed by a BNT test of 5%. The results showed that the addition of bioactivator MOL and Trichoderma sp. were able to accelerate the decomposition process. The C/N ratio on compost A has decreased from 22.1 to 9/month, while compost B has decreased from 21.6 to 8.5/month followed by a decrease in compost wet weight and a percentage shrinkage of Compost A wet weight of 35%/month and compost B of 28.33%/month. The total bacterial population of compost A was higher than that of compost B which was equal to 68.4 x 104 cfu/ml, however, the total compost B cellulolytic microorganisms was higher than the total cellulolytic microorganism compost A of 110.6 x 103 cfu/ml. The application of compost A and compost B to the soil has a significant influence on the biological properties of the soil such as the bacterial population and total cellulolytic microorganisms. B2 treatment showed that the highest total bacterial population was 167 x 104 cfu/ml and the highest total cellulolytic microorganism was 116 x 103 cfu/ml.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2019/423/051907166
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.4 Soil science > 631.46 Soil biology
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: soegeng sugeng
Date Deposited: 24 Aug 2020 07:25
Last Modified: 22 Feb 2022 03:11
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/173893
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