Keanekaragaman Dan Kelimpahan Arachnida Pada Top Soil Lahan Pertanaman Kedelai

Rama, Yolla Frinsiska (2019) Keanekaragaman Dan Kelimpahan Arachnida Pada Top Soil Lahan Pertanaman Kedelai. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Keanekaragaman fauna tanah memiliki peran penting dalam membentuk keseimbangan dan kesehatan tanah. Salah satu fauna tanah yang banyak ditemukan adalah Arachnida, yang berperan sebagai karnivora sekaligus predator, herbivor dan pengurai. Dari banyaknya penelitian tentang keanekaragaman Arachnida, hanya sedikit yang meneliti tentang keanekaragaman Arachnida pada top soil lahan tanaman kedelai (Glycine max (L) Merill). Adapun tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk (i) mengetahui keanekaragaman, kelimpahan dan komposisi spesies Arachnida pada top soil lahan pertanaman kedelai dengan umur tanaman dan lokasi tanam yang berbeda, (ii) mengetahui pengaruh habitat (strata tanah) terhadap keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan Arachnida. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan November 2018 sampai bulan Februari 2019 di tiga lokasi berbeda di Malang yaitu Randuagung (Kecamatan Singosari), Sidorejo (Kecamatan Donomulyo) dan Sumberblimbing (Kecamatan Donomulyo). Identifikasi spesimen dilakukan di Laboratorium Hama Jurusan HPT, Universitas Brawijaya. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan pada umur tanaman kedelai berbeda yaitu umur tanaman 2, 6, 10 dan 14 minggu setelah tanam (mst). Sampling dilakukan pada dua habitat berbeda yaitu permukaan tanah (menggunakan perangkap pitfall) dan dalam tanah (menggunakan metode langsung dan koleksi tanah). Perbedaan keanekaragaman dan kelimpahan Arachnida dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam. Sedangkan perbedaan komposisi spesies dianalisis menggunakan analisis kemiripan. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian pada ketiga lokasi ditemukan Arachnida sejumlah 484 individu yang terdiri atas 39 spesies. Arachnida yang ditemukan terbagi menjadi empat ordo yaitu Araneae (laba-laba), Mesostigmata, Sarcoptiformes dan Trombidiformes (tungau). Berdasarkan hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa lokasi tidak mempengaruhi kekayaan spesies (P=0,265) dan kelimpahan individu (P=0,599) arachnida. Umur tanaman kedelai juga tidak mempengaruhi kekayaan spesies (P=0,402) dan kelimpahan individu (P=0,336) Arachnida pada ketiga lokasi. Selain itu, habitat juga tidak mempengaruhi keanekaragaman spesies (P=0,080) tetapi mempengaruhi kelimpahan individu (P<0,001) Arachnida. Hasil analisis kemiripan menunjukkan bahwa komposisi spesies Arachnida tidak menunjukkan perbedaan pada ketiga lokasi (P=0,130) dan kedua habitat (P=0,100). Sedangkan perbedaan komposisi spesies Arachnida ditunjukkan antar umur tanaman kedelai yang berbeda (P=0,001). Spesies Arachnida dengan jumlah individu paling banyak adalah dari kelompok tungau, yaitu Lohmanniidae sp.1 sebanyak 221 individu, Macronyssidae sp.1 sebanyak 95 individu, dan Tectocepheidae sp.1 sebanyak 23 individu.

English Abstract

The diversity of soil fauna has important role that affects the balance and health of the soil. One of the diversity of soil fauna is Arachnid. Arachnid has important role in soil. Arachnid acts as carnivores as well as predator, herbivore and decomposer. According to many studies about the diversity of Arachnid, only a few that have examined the diversity of Arachnid on the top soil of soybean crop land (Glycine max (L) Merill). The objective of this study was to (i) find out the diversity, abundance and species composition of Arachnid on top soil of soybean crop land with different plant ages and locations, and (ii) find out the effect of habitat (strata of the soil) on the diversity and abundance of Arachnid. This study was conducted in November 2018 tol February 2019 in 3 different locations in Malang, which were in Randuagung (Singosari Sub-district), Sidorejo (Donomulyo Sub-district) and Sumberblimbing (Donomulyo Subdistrict). Identification of specimen was carried out at the Pest Laboratory of HPT Department, Brawijaya University. Sampling was carried out at different age of soybean plants, which were plant age of 2, 6, 10 and 14 weeks after planting (mst). Sampling was carried out on two different habitats which were on the surface of soil (using pitfall traps) and in the soil (using direct methods and soil collection). The differences in diversity and abundance of Arachnid were analyzed using analysis of variance. While the differences in species composition was analyzed using similarity analysis. Based on the study result at three locations, there were found 484 individuals of Arachnids that consisting of 39 species. Arachnids found were divided into four orders, which were Araneae (spiders), Mesostigmata, Sarcoptiformes and Trombidiformes (mites). According to the analysis of variance result shown that location did not affect the richness of species (P=0.265) and individual abundance (P=0.599) of Arachnid. Plant age also did not affect the richness of species (P=0.402) and individual abundance (P=0.336) of Arachnids at all of three locations. In addition, habitat also did not affect the diversity of species (P=0.080) but affected the individual abundance (P<0.001) of Arachnid. The similarity analysis result shown that composition species of Arachnid in three locations (P=0.130) and in two habitats (P=0.100) had no difference. While there were differences in composition of Arachnid at different age of soybean plants (P=0.001). The species of Arachnid with the most number of individual (dominating) was from the mite group, namely Lohmanniidae sp.1 with 221 individuals, Macronyssidae sp.1 with 95 individuals, and Tectocepheidae sp.1 with 23 individuals.

Other obstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2019/100/051906817
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.4 Soil science > 631.46 Soil biology
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 18 Aug 2020 03:02
Last Modified: 21 Oct 2021 07:05
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/173442
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