Potensi Bakteri Endofit pada Daun Tanaman Padi dengan Sistem Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu dalam mengendalikan Hawar Daun Bakteri secara In Vitro

Putra, Aditya Permana (2019) Potensi Bakteri Endofit pada Daun Tanaman Padi dengan Sistem Pengelolaan Hama Terpadu dalam mengendalikan Hawar Daun Bakteri secara In Vitro. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Padi (Oryza sativa L.) merupakan komoditas pertanian utama masyarakat Indonesia. Dalam menjalankan budidaya padi, terdapat penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri patogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae menyerang tanaman padi pada semua fase, mulai dari persemaian sampai dengan menjelang panen dengan kehilangan hasil bervariasi antara 15-80% kerusakan tanaman. Salah satu metode pengendalian organisme pengganggu tanaman (OPT) pada tanaman padi adalah penggunaan pestisida kimia sintetik, tetapi perlu diketahui bahwa penggunaan pestisida kimia sintetik tidak berdasarkan pemantauan dan dilakukan secara terus menerus akan menimbulkan banyak permasalahan lingkungan. Metode pengendalian dengan penggunaan agens antagonis merupakan tindakan yang bertujuan untuk mereduksi kepadatan aktivitas patogen, sehingga tidak menimbulkan gejala kerusakan. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengkaji kemampuan bakteri endofit daun padi dari lahan PHT dalam mengendalikan bakteri patogen penyebab penyakit hawar daun bakteri, mengkaji kondisi lahan pertanaman padi dengan sistem PHT dan konvensional, mengkaji kelimpahan bakteri dari lahan PHT dan konvensional, dan mengkaji karakter bakteri endofit daun padi dari lahan PHT yang bersifat antagonis terhadap bakteri patogen penyebab penyakit hawar daun bakteri. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Penyakit Tumbuhan, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang pada bulan Desember 2018 sampai dengan April 2019. Metode yang digunakan antara lain: pengambilan sampel; isolasi bakteri endofit; peremajaan bakteri Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; seleksi antagonis; uji antagonis; karakterisasi dan identifikasi bakteri. Variabel pengamatan terdiri atas morfologi bakteri, kelimpahan bakteri endofit pada lahan PHT dan konvensional, dan uji penghambatan bakteri endofit terhadap X. oryzae. Terdapat 38 isolat bakteri endofit hasil eksplorasi dari daun padi pada lahan PHT dan konvensional. Kelimpahan bakteri pada lahan PHT sebesar 609,93 × 105 cfu ml-1, sedangkan kelimpahan bakteri pada lahan konvensional sebesar 360 × 105 cfu ml-1. Seleksi bakteri endofit potensial antagonis terhadap X. oryzae berjumlah 9 isolat bakteri, kemudian dipilih 5 isolat bakteri dengan kemampuan zona hambat terbesar. Hasil uji antagonis menunjukkan isolat bakteri kode PD4, PL12, PM13, dan PR18 memiliki kemampuan setara dengan bakterisida berbahan aktif Oxytetracydin dan Streptomycin sulfate, sedangkan isolat bakteri kode PF6 memiliki kemampuan lebih besar daripada bakterisida. Identifikasi menunjukkan isolat bakteri kode PD4, PF6, dan PL12 termasuk ke dalam genus Erwinia sp., sedangkan isolat bakteri kode PM13 dan PR18 termasuk ke dalam genus Clostridium sp.

English Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an agricultural commodity in Indonesia. In carrying out rice cultivation, there is a disease caused by pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae attacks rice plants in all phases, ranging from seedbed to before harvest with loss of yield varies between 15-80% of crop damage. One method of controlling plant pest organisms in rice plants is the use of synthetic chemical pesticides, but it should be noted that the use of synthetic chemical pesticides not based on monitoring and carried out continuously will cause many environmental problems. The method of control with the use of antagonistic agents is an action that aims to reduce the density of pathogenic activity, so as not to cause symptoms of damage. The purpose of this study is to examine the ability of rice leaf endophytic bacteria from IPM fields in controlling bacterial pathogenic bacteria that cause leaf blight disease, assess the condition of rice crop land with IPM and conventional systems, assess bacterial abundance from IPM and conventional land, and examine endophytic bacterial character of leaves rice from IPM land which is antagonistic to pathogenic bacteria that cause bacterial leaf blight. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of Plant Diseases, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang in December 2018 to April 2019. The methods used included: sampling; isolation of endophytic bacteria; rejuvenation of the Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; antagonistic selection; antagonistic test; characterization and identification of bacteria. Observation variables consisted of bacterial morphology, abundance of endophytic bacteria in IPM and conventional land, and inhibition test for endophytic bacteria against X. oryzae. There were 38 isolates of endophytic bacteria as a result of exploration from rice leaves on IPM and conventional land. Bacterial abundance on IPM land was 609.93 × 105 cfu ml-1, while bacterial abundance in conventional land was 360 × 105 cfu ml-1. The selection of antagonistic potential endophytic bacteria for X. oryzae was 9 bacterial isolates, then 5 bacterial isolates were selected with the greatest inhibitory zone capability. The antagonistic test results showed that bacterial isolates code PD4, PL12, PM13, and PR18 had the same ability as bactericides made from Oxytetracydin and Streptomycin sulfate, whereas PF6 coded bacterial isolates had greater ability than bactericidal. Identification showed that isolates of code PD4, PF6, and PL12 were included in the genus Erwinia sp., Whereas bacterial isolates coded PM13 and PR18 belonged to the genus Clostridium sp.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2019/467/051907241
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 633 Field and plantation crops > 633.1 Cereals > 633.18 Rice
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: soegeng sugeng
Date Deposited: 24 Aug 2020 07:02
Last Modified: 24 Aug 2020 07:02
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/173145
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