Peran Penyuluh Swadaya Dalam Merubah Perilaku Petani Pada Program Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (Pht) Komoditas Padi (Kasus Pada Kelompok Tani “Tani Makmur”, Desa Sale, Kecamatan Sale, Kabupaten Rembang)

Yusup, Ahmad Rohandi (2018) Peran Penyuluh Swadaya Dalam Merubah Perilaku Petani Pada Program Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (Pht) Komoditas Padi (Kasus Pada Kelompok Tani “Tani Makmur”, Desa Sale, Kecamatan Sale, Kabupaten Rembang). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Penyuluh pertanian memiliki posisi sebagai agen perubahan yang berperan menyampaikan inovasi-inovasi pertanian kaitannya dengan pertanian berkelanjutan. Namun, kondisi di lapang mengungkapkan bahwa penyuluh pertanian lapang justru jarang berada di lapang bersama petani sehingga kegiatan penyuluhan kurang berjalan optimal. Hal tersebut disebabkan tidak proporsionalnya jumlah penyuluh pertanian lapang dengan jumlah wilayah kerjanya sehingga menyebabkan penyuluh pertanian lapang tidak selalu dapat mendampingi petani dalam kegiatan penyuluhan. Oleh karena itu, diperlukan tenaga penyuluh swadaya yang berasal dari kalangan petani sendiri. Kelebihan penyuluh swadaya dalam penyuluhan pertanian yaitu lebih mudah berkomunikasi kepada petani, lebih sering berinteraksi dengan petani dan memiliki hubungan yang lebih erat karena latar belakang yang sama. Salah satu upaya pemerintah yang melibatkan penyuluh swadaya dalam peningkatan produksi pangan yaitu program Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT). Program PHT ini memiliki tujuan untuk memberikan kondisi optimal bagi produksi tanaman pangan melalui upaya pengendalian Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman (OPT). Posisi penyuluh swadaya dalam kegiatan ini sebagai pembantu penyuluh pertanian lapang yang berinteraksi secara langsung dan melakukan pendampingan bersama petani. Pemahaman mengenai pengendalian hama terpadu dengan berbagai teknik yang digunakan perlu ditanamkan kepada petani oleh penyuluh swadaya. Hal itu bertujuan agar petani memiliki pengetahuan lebih, bersikap positif dan terampil dalam penerapan PHT. Selain itu, penyuluh swadaya dituntut mampu merubah perilaku petani yang semula menggunakan pestisida kimia dalam mengendalikan hama padi. Hal tersebut menjadi tugas dan kewajiban agen penyuluhan pertanian khususnya penyuluh swadaya dalam merubah perilaku petani demi tercapainya tujuan PHT. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan gabungan (mix method) untuk menganalisis peran penyuluh swadaya, perilaku petani dan karakteristik petani. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Desa Sale, Kecamatan Sale, Kabupaten Rembang pada kelompok tani “Tani Makmur” selama tiga bulan mulai bulan Maret hingga Juni 2018. Jumlah responden yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini sejumlah 25 orang anggota kelompok tani “Makmur” yang menjadi peserta progra PHT dan ditentukan melalui metode sensus. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui observasi, wawancara, kuesioner dan dokumentasi kegiatan. Data hasil penelitian dianalisis menggunakan analisis korelasi Rank Spearman untuk mengetahui hubungan antara karakteristik petani dengan perilaku petani dan hubungan antara peran penyuluh swadaya dengan perilaku petani. Selain itu, digunakan analisi uji-t untuk mengetahui perbedaan atau perubahan perilaku petani. Data kuantitatif tersebut didukung dengan data kualitatif berupa pendapat petani di lapang mengenai topik yang berkaitan dan dianalisis melalui model interaktif Miles-Hubermann.ii Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa peran penyuluh swadaya sebagai motivator, diseminator, fasilitator dan konsultan di lokasi penelitian keempatnya berkategori sedang dengan persentase dari tertinggi hingga yang terendah yaitu peran diseminator (72,80%), peran motivator (71,13%), peran fasilitator (68,53%) dan peran konsultan (62,67%). Peran penyuluh swadaya belum optimal karena penyuluh swadaya masih terlalu bergantung dengan petugas Pengamat Organisme Pengganggu Tanaman (POPT) dan PPL. Peran penyuluh tersebut berakibat pada perubahan perilaku petani yang kurang optimal juga. Perubahan pengetahuan petani tertinggi yaitu pada materi pupuk organik sebesar 51,20%. Perubahan sikap petani tertinggi pada materi pengamatan lahan pertanian sebesar 32%. Perubahan keterampilan petani tertinggi pada materi agen hayati sebesar 36,80%. Pada analisis uji Mann-Whitney menunjukan bahwa terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara perilaku sebelum dan setelah mengikuti program PHT karena mempunyai nilai signifikansi kurang dari 0.5. Hal tersebut menunjukan bahwa setelah mengikuti program PHT terjadi perubahan perilaku petani dalam mengendalikan OPT padi menjadi lebih baik karena nilai rata-rata perilaku yang meningkat setelah mengikuti program PHT. Hasil analisis korelasi menunjukan pengetahuan petani berhubungan secara positif dengan pendidikan dan jumlah tanggungan keluarga, tetapi berhubungan negatif dengan pengalaman petani. Selain itu, terdapat hubungan yang positif antara keterampilan petani dengan jumlah tanggungan keluarga. Pada aspek sikap, ternyata sikap petani tidak berhubungan dengan variabel karakteristik petani yang dianalisis dan dijelaskan oleh variabel di luar tersebut. Analisi korelasi juga menunjukan adanya hubungan antara peran penyuluh swadaya yaitu peran motivator, diseminator dan peran fasilitator dengan perilaku petani aspek kognitif, afektif dan psikomotorik. Pengetahuan petani berhubungan positif dengan peran motivator dan fasilitator, sedangkan keterampilan petani berhubungan positif dengan peran diseminator dan fasilitator. Aspek sikap tidak berhubungan dengan peran penyuluh swadaya, artinya peran yang telah dilaksanakan penyuluh swadaya belum mampu merubah sikap petani terhadap materi pengendalian OPT pada program PHT.

English Abstract

Agricultural extension agents have a position as agents of change whose role is to convey agricultural innovations related to sustainable agriculture. However, conditions in the field revealed that field agricultural extension workers were rarely in the field with farmers, so extension activities were not optimal. This is due to the disproportionate number of field extension workers with the number of working areas, causing field extension workers to not always be able to assist farmers in extension activities. Therefore, self-supporting extension workers are needed from among the farmers themselves. The advantages of self-help instructors in agricultural counseling are that they are easier to communicate with farmers, more often interact with farmers and have closer relations because of the same background. One of the government efforts involving independent extension workers in increasing food production is the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program. The IPM program aims to provide optimal conditions for food crop production through efforts to control Plant Pest Organisms (OPT). The position of self-supporting instructors in this activity is as helpers of field agriculture instructors who interact directly and provide assistance with farmers. An understanding of integrated pest control with various techniques used needs to be invested in farmers by self-supporting instructors. It is intended that farmers have more knowledge, be positive and skilled in applying IPM. In addition, selfsupporting instructors are required to be able to change the behavior of farmers who originally used chemical pesticides to control rice pests. This is the duty and obligation of agricultural extension agents, especially self-supporting extension agents, to change the behavior of farmers to achieve the objectives of IPM. This study uses a mix method approach to analyze the role of extension selfhelp, farmer behavior and characteristics of farmers. The research was conducted in Sale Village, Sale District, Rembang Regency for three months from March to June 2018. The number of respondents used in this research is 25 members of farmer group "Tani Makmur" who participated in IPM program and it’s determined by census method. Data collection is done through observation, interview, questionnaire and activity documentation. The data of the research were analyzed using Rank Spearman correlation analysis to find out the correlation between characteristics of farmers with farmer behavior and the relationship between the role of extension self-help with farmer behavior. In addition, t-t analysis is used to determine differences or changes in farmer behavior. The quantitative data is supported by qualitative data in the form of farmer opinions in the field regarding topics related and analyzed through the Miles-Hubermann interactive model. The results showed that the role of self-help instructors as motivators, disseminators, facilitators and consultants in the research locations were four in the moderate category with the highest from the lowest to dissemination roles (72.80%), motivator roles (71.13%), facilitator roles (68.53%) and consultant role (62.67%). The role of self-help extension agents is not optimal because self-helpiv extension agents are still too dependent on officers of Plant Disturbing Organism Observers (POPT) and PPL. The role of the extension agent has resulted in changes in the behavior of farmers that are less optimal as well. The highest change in farmers' knowledge is in organic fertilizer material by 51.20%. The highest change in farmer attitudes on agricultural land observation material was 32%. The highest change in farmer skills in biological agent material was 36.80%. In the MannWhitney test analysis shows that there are significant differences between behavior before and after participating in the IPM program because it has a significance value of less than 0.5. This shows that after participating in the IPM program there was a change in the behavior of farmers in controlling rice pest to be better because the average value of behavior increased after participating in the IPM program. The results of the correlation analysis show that farmers' knowledge is positively related to education and the number of family dependents, but negatively related to the experience of farmers. In addition, there is a positive relationship between farmers' skills and the number of family dependents. In the attitude aspect, it turns out that the farmer's attitude is not related to the characteristics of the farmers who are analyzed and explained by the variables outside it. Correlation analysis also shows the relationship between the role of self-help instructors, namely the role of motivators, disseminators and the role of facilitators with farmers' behaviors in cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects. Farmers 'knowledge is positively related to the role of motivators and facilitators, while farmers' skills are positively related to the role of disseminators and facilitators. The attitude aspect is not related to the role of self-help instructors, meaning that the role that has been carried out by independent extension workers has not been able to change the attitude of farmers towards pest control material in IPM programs.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/911/051900281
Uncontrolled Keywords: Padi, kelompok tani
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 633 Field and plantation crops > 633.1 Cereals > 633.18 Rice
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agribisnis
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 29 Oct 2019 06:43
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2021 01:53
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/167011
[thumbnail of AHMAD ROHANDI YUSUP.pdf]
Preview
Text
AHMAD ROHANDI YUSUP.pdf

Download (2MB) | Preview

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item