Eksplorasi Jamur Endofit Pada Daun Tanaman Pisang Dan Uji Potensi Antagonismenya Terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium Oxysporum F.Sp Cubense

Chairunnisa, Dita (2018) Eksplorasi Jamur Endofit Pada Daun Tanaman Pisang Dan Uji Potensi Antagonismenya Terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium Oxysporum F.Sp Cubense. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Pisang Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) adalah salah satu komoditas buah yang banyak di konsumsi oleh masyarakat. Buah pisang memiliki kandungan gizi yang cukup tinggi yaitu karbohidrat, gula, protein, lemak, garam-garam mineral serta vitamin A, B, dan C. Pisang memiliki potensi komersial baik sebagai buah segar maupun produk olahan. Pada 5 tahun terakhir yaitu dari tahun 2013 sampai 2017 produksi pisang mengalami fluktuasi. Faktor penurunan produksi diperkirakan menjadi penyebab persoalan hama dan penyakit pada saat pertumbuhannya. Salah satunya penyakit yang menyerang tanaman pisang yaitu layu fusarium disebabkan oleh cendawan Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense. Pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium yang biasa dilakukan selama ini masih secara kimiawi yaitu dengan aplikasi fungisida. Pengendalian secara biologi (hayati) merupakan alternatif pengendalian yang dapat dilakukan karena tidak memberikan pengaruh negatif terhadap lingkungan. Salah satu agens pengendalian hayati terhadap penyakit tumbuhan yaitu dengan menggunakan jamur endofit. Jamur endofit bersifat antagonis untuk meningkatkan ketahanan tanaman terhadap patogen. Jamur endofit merupakan jamur yang terdapat di dalam jaringan tumbuhan seperti akar, batang, daun maupun bunga. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei sampai November 2018. Pengambilan sampel daun pisang yang sehat dilakukan di areal kebun Pancursari PT. Perkebunan Nusantara XII, Sumbermanjing Wetan, Kabupaten Malang. Isolasi, perbanyakan jamur endofit dan uji antagonis dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Penyakit Tumbuhan, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya Malang. Penelitian ini terbagi menjadi 4 tahap, yaitu: pengambilan sampel daun tanaman pisang, isolasi jamur endofit dari daun pisang, purifikasi, preparasi, pengamatan, identifikasi jamur yang ditemukan dan uji penghambatan jamur endofit terhadap pertumbuhan Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense. Penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 8 perlakuan dan 3 ulangan. Data hasil pengamatan dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam. Apabila respon dari perlakuan berbeda nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji Duncan‟s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Hasil isolasi jamur endofit tanaman pisang, diperoleh 8 jamur. Isolat jamur yang teridentifikasi berasal dari 7 genus yaitu Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Gongronella sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Cladosporium sp. dan Helminthosporium sp. Jenis jamur antagonis pada endofit tanaman pisang yang dapat menekan pertumbuhan jamur patogen Foc secara in-vitro diperoleh 3 jamur yaitu pada perlakuan Gongronella sp., Rhizoctonia sp dan Aspergillus sp.

English Abstract

Banana Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) is one of the fruit commodities that are widely consumed by the public. Banana fruit has a fairly high nutrient content, namely carbohydrates, sugar, protein, fat, mineral salts and vitamins A, B, and C. Bananas have the commercial potential both as fresh fruit and processed products. In the last 5 years, from 2013 to 2017 banana production has fluctuated. The production decline factor is estimated to be the cause of problems of pests and diseases at the time of growth. One of the diseases that attack banana plants is fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. Sp cubense. The control of fusarium wilt which has been done so far is by chemical control, known as the application of fungicides. Biological control is an alternative control that can be done because it does not have a negative influence for the environment. One of the biological control agents for plant diseases is by using endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi are antagonistic that have fuction to increase plant resistance to pathogens. Endophytic fungi are fungi found in plant tissues such as roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. This research was done from May to November 2018. Take the healthy banana leaf samples was done in the Pancursari garden area of PT. Perkebunan Nusantara XII, Sumbermanjing Wetan, Malang Regency. Isolation, multiplication of endophytic fungi and antagonistic tests were done at the Laboratory of Plant Diseases, Department of Plant Pests and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya Malang. This study was divided into 4 stages, which are: The sampling of banana plant leaves, the isolation of endophytic fungi from banana leaves, the purification, the preparation, the observation, the identification of fungi founded and the inhibition test of endophytic fungal on the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubense. This study used a Completely Randomized Design with 8 treatments and 3 replications. Data from the observations were analyzed using variance analysis. If the response from the treatment is significantly different, then proceed the result with the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at the 5% error level. The results of the isolation of endophytic fungi from banana plants is 8 fungi. The endophytic fungi isolates identified from 7 genera, which are Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Gongronella sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Cladosporium sp. and Helminthosporium sp. Antagonistic fungi in the banana plant that endophytic can suppressed the growth of Foc pathogenic fungi for in vitro obtained from 3 genera fungi, there are from the treatment of Gongronella sp., Rhizoctonia sp and Aspergillus sp.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/962/051901375
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.3 Diseases / Plant diseases
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 23 Oct 2019 06:38
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2021 03:26
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/165289
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