Pergeseran Kebijakan Hukum Pidana tentang Pencemaran Lingkungan Hidup dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup

Sugiri, Bambang (2012) Pergeseran Kebijakan Hukum Pidana tentang Pencemaran Lingkungan Hidup dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 tentang Perlindungan dan Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup. Doctor thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Krisis lingkungan hidup dewasa ini tidak lagi dipahami sekedar isu. Krisis lingkungan hidup telah menjelma menjadi ancaman ( threat ) terutama bagi negara ( state ) baik dalam skala Nasional ataupun Internasional. Di tengah krisis lingkungan hidup yang makin parah, kebijakan menggunakan hukum pidana sebagai sarana penanggulangan pencemaran lingkungan hidup menarik untuk dikaji. Kebijakan hukum pidana tentang pencemaran lingkungan hidup dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 menunjukkan terjadinya dinamika penggunaan hukum pidana sebagai sarana penanggulangan pencemaran lingkungan hidup di Indonesia. Jika pada masa-masa sebelumnya (sanksi) hukum pidana ditempatkan pada posisi ` ultimum remedium `, maka pada Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 ditempatkan pada posisi ` primum remedium `. Disertasi ini merupakan ikhtiar untuk menelusuri ide dasar yang menjadi latar belakang pergeseran kebijakan hukum pidana tentang pencemaran lingkungan hidup dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009. Penelusuran demikian ini dipandang penting karena akan menemukan dasar pembenaran ( justification ) penggunaan hukum pidana sebagai sarana penanggulangan pencemaran lingkungan hidup baik dilihat dari sudut sifat bahayanya perbuatan ( nature of offence ) ataupun sifat bahayanya orang yang melakukan ( nature of offenders ). Tidak hanya berhenti pada penelusuran ide dasar, disertasi ini juga mempermasalahkan apakah ketentuan pidana tentang pencemaran lingkungan hidup dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 telah mencerminkan ide dasar yang menjadi basis pergeserannya serta apakah ketentuan pidana tentang pencemaran lingkungan hidup dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 memiliki kesesuaian dengan asas-asas hukum pidana sebagaimana ditentukan dalam Ketentuan Umum Bab I KUHP. Sebagai sebuah penelitian hukum, penelitian disertasi ini menggunakan tiga pendekatan, yaitu pendekatan filosofis, pendekatan konseptual dan pendekatan undang-undang. Sementara itu analisis terhadap hasil penelitian digunakan teori kebijakan hukum pidana ( penal policy ), model hukum ( model law ) tentang kriminalisasi pencemaran lingkungan hidup serta model harmonisasi ketentuan hukum pidana sebagai satu kesatuan sistem pemidanaan (substantif) di Indonesia. Hasil penelitian disertasi ini berkesimpulan bahwa ide dasar pergeseran kebijakan hukum pidana tentang pencemaran lingkungan hidup dalam Undang-Undang Nomor 32 Tahun 2009 bersumber pada landasan filosofis dan dasar ratio legis yang menempatkan lingkungan hidup sebagai sebuah kepentingan hukum. Oleh karena itu, dari perspektif kebijakan hukum pidana, penggunaan hukum pidana memperoleh dasar pembenaran ( justifications ) karena: (1). Dari sudut sifat bahayanya perbuatan ( nature of offence ), pencemaran lingkungan hidup adalah perbuatan merugikan yang menyerang lingkungan hidup sebagai sebuah kepentingan hukum dan oleh karena itu secara moral adalah tercela ( mala in se ); (2). Dari sudut orang yang melakukan ( nature of offenders ), penggunaan sanksi pidana di

English Abstract

In the latest development of era, environmental crisis is no longer understood as merely issue. Environmental crisis has become a threat especially for state at both national and international scale. In the midst of increasing environmental crisis, the use of criminal law sanction policy as an instrument dealing with environmental pollution prevention. The implementation of Law number 32 year 2009 on Protection and Environment Management in which set a rules for the use of criminal law sanction, show its own dynamic steps in the effort for prevent environmental pollution in Indonesia. In the previous time, criminal law sanction placed in the position of ultimum remedium, then in Law number 32 year 2009 it place in the position of `primum remedium.` This dissertation is an effort to trace the basic idea that become the shifting background of criminal law policy in environmental pollution as regulated in Law number 32 year 2009. The idea of tracing remain important, as it will find justification use of criminal law as an instrument to prevent environmental pollution both in nature of offence and nature of offenders aspects. Effort in trace the basic idea is not the only issue, yet this dissertation also questioned whether criminal provision on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 has show the basic idea that become the shifting basis. Finally, due to the existence of criminal provision on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 only as a part of material (substantive) criminal principles in Indonesia, this dissertation only questioned whether criminal provision on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 in conformity with criminal law principles as defined in Book I General Provision Indonesian Criminal Code. This dissertation is a legal research that uses three approaches, which are philosophical approach, conceptual approach and statute approach. Meanwhile, analysis on this research use penal policy theory, modeal law on environmental pollution criminalization and harmonization model on criminal law as an unification system of substantive system in Indonesia. The result of this dissertation concludes that the basic idea on the shift of criminal law policy on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 as it source from philosophical background and ratio legis background that emphasize environment as a legal interest. Therefore, from the perspective of criminal law policy, the implementation of criminal law obtain justifications based of these reasons: (1) Nature of offence aspect, environmental pollution is an action that violate environment as legal interest, therefore in moral term regard as mala in se. Environmental pollution has bring a devastated affect as it is threaten environment itself yet the continuity of present generation and future generation; (2) Nature of offenders aspect, use of criminal sanction is allowed as it has been regard that environmental pollution crime mostly conduct by corporate due to economic profit motive. Environmental pollution also provide great advantage to perpetrator (on the other hand, it bring devastated loss to environment) meanwhile, the possibility of detection may low, therefore the use of criminal sanction intend to provide deterrent effect and stigmatize the perpetrators. Criminal provision on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 cover restricted action, mistakes and criminal sanction in which threaten. Restricted actions cover violation of administrative demand that bring abstract endangerment; concrete endangerment with administrative predicate; concrete harm with administrative predicate and; serious environmental pollution: eliminating administrative links. Although criminalization of environmental pollution has been executed in layer, yet on the basis of restricted action, criminal provision in Law number 32 year 2009 has not fulfill sufficient protection toward environment as legal interest. Provision in article 98 (number 2 and 3) and provision in article 99 (number 2 and 3) and provision of article 112 which oriented to the interest of human law (harm to environment = harm to human). Criminal provision on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 still used liability based on fault. As far as relates to corporate fault element, criminal provision on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 assured physical perpetrator fault as corporate fault as functional perpetrator. Criminal provision on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 threat crimes in gradual step. Threaten criminal sanction as burdened proportionally in equal with damages action and perpetrator fault. Threatened criminal sanctions consist of principal and additional criminal offense or disciplinary action. Threatened principal sanction in form of imprisonment and cumulative fine (single criminal) using specific minimum penalty. Contentment of single criminal sanction (imprisonment and cumulative fine) and specific minimum penalty indicates criminal law policy on environmental pollution in Law number 32 year 2009 more oriented in the risk of action (yet in aspect of risk, impact or motive that underlies criminal action). Related to cri

Item Type: Thesis (Doctor)
Identification Number: DES/344.046/SUG/p/061204755
Subjects: 300 Social sciences > 344 Labor, social service, education, cultural law
Divisions: S2/S3 > Doktor Ilmu Hukum, Fakultas Hukum
Depositing User: Endro Setyobudi
Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2013 18:38
Last Modified: 31 Jan 2013 18:38
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/160879
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