Pengaruh Perlakuan Dewaxing, Fermentasi Menggunakan Aspergilus niger dan Waktu Distilasi Daun Nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) terhadap Karakteristik Komponen Penyusun Minyak Nilam

Raharjo, SentotJoko (2012) Pengaruh Perlakuan Dewaxing, Fermentasi Menggunakan Aspergilus niger dan Waktu Distilasi Daun Nilam (Pogostemon cablin Benth) terhadap Karakteristik Komponen Penyusun Minyak Nilam. Magister thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh perlakuan dewaxing dan fermentasi menggunakan Aspergilus niger dan waktu distilasi daun nilam terhadap karakteristik komponen penyusun minyak nilam menggunakan analisis KLT dan KG-SM. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan rendemen minyak nilam. Untuk itu dilakukan: (1) Dewaxing dilakukan menggunakan larutan NaOH 0,25% (b/v) pada temperatur 55ºC. (2) Proses fermentasi daun nilam dilakukan menggunakan Aspergilus niger dengan variasi rasio starter: media (1:100, 1:200, 1:300) selama 4, 6, dan 8 hari. (3) Optimasi waktu distilasi uap terhadap daun nilam dilakukan dengan variasi waktu penampungan distilat selama 12 jam diambil setiap 2 jam dan variasi waktu distilasi selama 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, dan 12 jam. Minyak nilam yang diperoleh ditentukan rendemen, mutu dan karakteristiknya. Karakterisasi minyak nilam bertujuan untuk mengetahui perubahan komponen penyusun minyak nilam akibat pengaruh ketiga metode tersebut. Mutu minyak nilam yang dihasilkan dari ketiga metode tersebut memenuhi persyaratan standar mutu minyak nilam dari SNI 06-2385-2006 dan ISO 3757:2002. Karakterisasi minyak nilam yang dianalisis menggunakan metode KLT dari ketiga metode tersebut menunjukkan ada kesamaan nilai R f -nya. Karakterisasi minyak nilam hasil distilasi uap selama 6 jam terhadap daun nilam dewaxing dan fermentasi menggunakan Aspergilus niger yang paling optimal adalah fermentasi daun nilam dengan rasio stater : media (1:300) selama 8 hari dengan rendemen 4,15%, warna kuning muda, berat jenis 0,958 g/mL, indeks bias 1,5093 dan prosentase patchouli alkohol 59,08%. Karakterisasi minyak nilam pada waktu penampungan distilat yang optimal adalah waktu penampungan distilat fraksi ke-3 selama 12 jam dengan rendemen 0,56%, warna kuning muda, berat jenis 0,9685 g/mL dan indeks bias 1,5095 serta prosentase patchouli alkohol 69,56 %. Karaktersitik minyak nilam pada waktu distilasi yang optimal adalah waktu distilasi selama 12 jam dengan rendemen 6,61%, warna kuning muda, berat jenis 0,9672 g/mL, indeks bias 1,5082 dan prosentase patchouli alkohol 45,69%. Komponen penyusun minyak nilam yang lain adalah alfa-gurjunen, cis-thujosen, beta-patchoulen, alfa-patchoulen, betacaryophyllen, alfa-guaien, seychellen, aromadendren, beta-gurjunen, alfa-humulen, alfa-bulnesen, gemacrene-D, dehidroaromadendren, gemacrene-A, gammapatchoulen, valencene, viridiflorene, selina-3,7-(11)-dien, nor-patchoulenol, pogostol, illudol, globulol, beta-caryophyllen oksida, viridiflorol dan ledol.

English Abstract

effect of dewaxing and fermentation using Aspergillus niger and time distillation toward patchouli leaves have been done. patchouli oil resulted from distillation were characteristic using TLC and GC-MS. aim of study was to enchance yield of patchouli oil. To do that several effort has been done i.e: (1) Dewaxing performed using 0.25% (b/v) NaOH solution at temperature of 55ºC. (2) Patchouli leaves were fermented process using Aspergillus niger with variation ratio of starter: media (1:100, 1:200, 1:300) for (4, 6, 8 days). (3) distillation was done in two ways, ie: (a) length of time distillation was 12 hours, n distillate collected every 2 hours, (b) distillation time were (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) hours. Patchouli oil of resulted was determined yield, quality and characteristics. Characterization were intended to determine occurrence of constituent component changes due to influence of patchouli oil dewaxing, fermentation, and steam distillation time. quality of patchouli oil resulted from three methods meets quality standard requirements of patchouli oil of SNI 06-2385-2006 and ISO 3757:2002. characteristics of patchouli oil of resulted steam distillation analyzed using TLC method, retardation factor resulted showed that three methods was no different. characteristics of patchouli oil resulted from steam distillation for 6 hours to leaves dewaxing and fermentation using Aspergilus niger exhibited that optimal result was fermented leaves with ratio starter : media (1:300) for 8 days to yield 4.15%, light yellow color, specific gravity 0.958 g/ mL, index bias of 1.5093 and patchouli alcohol of 59.08%. characteristics of patchouli oil showed that of best result was 3 rd fraction collected distillate time of 12 hours with a yield of 0.56%, light yellow color, specific gravity 0.9685 g/ mL and a refractive index of 1.5095 and patchouli alcohol of 69.56%. characteristic of patchouli oil showed that of best result was time distillation for 12 hours with a yield of 6.61%, light yellow color, specific gravity of 0.9672 g/ mL, refractive index of 1.5082 and patchouli alcohol of 45.69%. o r components of patchouli oil detected were: alpha-gurjunene, cis-thujosene, beta-patchoulene, alpha-patchoulene, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-guaiene, seychellen, aromadendrene, beta-gurjunene, alpha-humulene, alpha-bulnesene, gemacrene-D, dehidroaromadendrene, gemacrene-A, gamma-patchoulene, valencene, viridiflorene, selina-3,7-(11)-dien, nor-patchoulenol, pogostol, illudol, globulol, beta-caryophyllen oksida, viridiflorol and ledol.

Item Type: Thesis (Magister)
Identification Number: TES/633.85/RAH/p/041200500
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 633 Field and plantation crops > 633.8 Other crops grown for industrial processing
Divisions: S2/S3 > Magister Matematika, Fakultas MIPA
Depositing User: Endro Setyobudi
Date Deposited: 07 Jan 2014 13:04
Last Modified: 07 Jan 2014 13:04
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/158943
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