Rekayasa Tata Cahaya Alami pada Ruang Kelas Sekolah Autis Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang,

Suyatno, VictoriaPratiwi (2016) Rekayasa Tata Cahaya Alami pada Ruang Kelas Sekolah Autis Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang,. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Anak penyandang autis merupakan anak yang memiliki gangguan kompleks perkembangan sistem saraf akibat kerusakan pada otak sehingga menyebabkan kesulitan berhubungan interaksi sosial, perilaku, komunikasi, merespon rangsangan dan belajar. Anak penyandang autis ini memiliki kesulitan dalam mengolah infromasi yang ditangkap alat indera dan juga merespon yang berlebihan terhadap rangsangan atau dapat dikatakan disfungsi sensori. Berdasarkan disfungsi sensori pada anak penyandang autis terdapat dua klasifikasi yaitu anak penyandang autis hipersensori dan hiposensori. Jumlah anak penyandang autis hipersensori lebih banyak dari hiposensori. Anak penyandang autis hipersensori sangat sensitif terhadap cahaya yang terang, menyilaukan, dan gelap. Selain itu anak penyandang autis cenderung hiperaktif, sulit berkonsentrasi dan mudah terdistraksi.Pencahayaan alami dapat memberikan stimulus kepada sensori visual anak penyandang autis. Pencahayaan alami mampu mengurangi adrelani negatif yang mampu memicu anak depresi. Bagi anak penyandang autis hipersensori tidak menyukai pencahayaan alami secara langsung karena mampu menyilaukan mata serta membuat frustasi, gelisah, pusing dan sakit mata. Ruang kelas merupakan tempat berlangsungnya proses belajar mengajar dimana antara guru dan murid saling berinteraksi dan berkomunikasi. Ruang kelas akan berfungsi maksimal apabila pengguna mendapat kenyamanan visual dengan tingkat pencahayaan alami sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan karakteristik pengguna. Standar nyaman pencahayaan alami pada ruang kelas di Indonesia 250 lux. Pada ruang kelas untuk penyandang autis, kenyamanan visual sangat diperlukan dalam proses belajar mengajar. Anak penyandang autis hipersensori memiliki disfungsi sensori visual perlu desain bukaan jendela dan pembayang matahari yang mampu memfokuskan anak ada pelajaran dan mengoptimalkan pencahayaan alami di ruang kelas. Sekolah Autis Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang merupakan sekolah untuk anak penyandang autis yang setara dengan pendidikan sekolah dasar. Berdasarkan pengukuran tingkat pencahayaan alami ruang kelas pada sekolah ini, dari 8 ruang kelas terdapat 4 ruang kelas memiliki masalah belum mencapai standar atau terlalu gelap dan 4 ruang kelas lain melebihi standar atau terlalu terang. Posisi bukaan jendela 1 m dari lantai dapat menyebabkan pandangan anak mudah terdistraksi dan sulit berkonsentrasi karena posisinya sesuai dengan ketinggian anak. Penelitian ini terdapat 3 tahap yaitu tahap pertama merupakan observasi dengan metode survei dilakukan dengan mengukur dimensi bukaan jendela dan pembayang matahari serta mengukur tingkat pencahayaan alami pada setiap ruang kelas. Tahap kedua menganalisis menggunakan metode komparatif. Analisis data ini dilakukan dengan membandingkan kinerja bukaan jendela dan pembayang matahari kondisi eksisting yang kemudian disimulasikan dengan software DIAlux 4.12 dengan parameter. Simulasi dilakukan bertujuan untuk verifikasi data hasil simulasi untuk mendapatkan validasi. Tahap Ketiga merupakan tahap sintesis data menggunakan metode simulasi eksperimental. Sintesis pada penelitian ini adalah rekomendasi desain berupa bukaan jendela, pembayang matahari dan warna dinding dengan beberapa model alternatif disimulasikan menggunakan software DIAlux4.12. Hasil simulasi sintesis ini akan menghasilkan strategi desain pencahayaan alami untuk mencapai kenyamanan visual Sekolah Autis Laboratorium Universitas Negeri Malang.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FT/2016/961/051611992
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 690 Construction of buildings
Divisions: Fakultas Teknik > Arsitektur
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono Wahyono
Date Deposited: 23 Nov 2016 14:30
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2021 02:22
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/145253
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