Uji Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Umbi Gadung (Dioscorea Hispida Dennstendt) Terhadap Larva Plutella Xylostella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Pratama, Novi Bagus (2018) Uji Bioaktivitas Ekstrak Umbi Gadung (Dioscorea Hispida Dennstendt) Terhadap Larva Plutella Xylostella Linnaeus (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) adalah salah satu hama penting tanaman kubis yang dikenal dengan nama umum Diamondback Moth. Hama ini merusak tanaman pada fase larva dengan memakan bagian daun tanaman kubis. Dalam mengatasi serangan hama P. xylostella, pada umumnya petani masih menggunakan insektisida sintetik secara intensif. Disisi lain, penggunaan insektisida sintetik dapat menimbulkan dampak pencemaran dan residu racun pada lingkungan. Salah satu alternatif dalam menanggulangi dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan akibat penggunaan insektisida sintetis yaitu dengan mengaplikasikan pestisida nabati. Salah satu jenis tumbuhan yang dapat dijadikan sebagai insektisida nabati adalah tanaman gadung (Dioscorea hispida dennstendt). Kandungan senyawa aktif yang terdapat di dalam umbi gadung antara lain alkaloid dioskorin, saponin, dan zat tanin. Senyawa tersebut diketahui bersifat pestisidal dan sangat toksik pada serangga. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji toksisitas ekstrak umbi gadung dan juga pengaruh aplikasinya terhadap penghambatan aktivitas makan P. xylostella, pembentukan pupa dan kemunculan imago P. xylostella. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan Sub Laboratorium Toksikologi dan ruang Rearing, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya pada bulan Januari sampai Juni 2016. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok dengan 7 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan, setiap perlakuan terdiri dari 20 larva P. xylostella. Perlakuan yang dipakai yaitu konsentrasi 0 ppm (kontrol), 10.000 ppm, 20.000 ppm, 30.000 ppm, 40.000 ppm, 50.000 ppm dan 60.000 ppm. Data yang diperoleh dianalisa dengan sidik ragam dan uji Duncan pada taraf 5% selanjutnya dilakukan analisis probit untuk mengetahui nilai Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) dan Median Lethal Time (LT50) dengan menggunakan Software Probit Analysis Hsin Chi. Apabila pada kontrol terdapat kematian (kurang dari 20%) maka persentase kematian dikoreksi dengan rumus Abbott (1987). Berdasarkan hasil penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak kasar umbi gadung dapat dijadikan sebagai alternatif pengendalian hama P. xylostella dengan nilai LC50 terdapat pada konsentrasi 41773,40 ppm dan LT50 pada tiap konsentrasi berturut-turut sebesar 368,54 JSA, 307,68 JSA, 174,43 JSA, 120,68 JSA, 97,97 JSA dan 73,45 JSA. Aplikasi ekstrak umbi gadung mampu menghambat aktivitas makan larva P. xylostella hingga 73,28%. Keberhasilan pembentukan pupa P. xylostella terendah pada perlakuan ekstrak umbi gadung konsentrasi 60.000 ppm yaitu sebesar 30,03%. Keberhasilan pembentukan imago normal dan abnormal P. xylostella terendah pada perlakuan ekstrak umbi gadung konsentrasi 60.000 ppm masing-masing sebesar 14,56% dan 5%.

English Abstract

Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is one of the important pests of cabbage plants known by the common name Diamondback Moth. This pests damage plants in the larval phase by eating the leaves of the cabbage plant. In controlling P. xylostella pests, in general farmers still use synthetic insecticides intensively. On the other hand, the use of synthetic insecticides can cause pollution impact and poison residue. The alternative way to reduce negative impact on the environment due to the use of synthetic insecticides is by applying botanical pesticides. One type of plant that can be used as material for botanical insecticide is a Gadung plant (Dioscorea hispida dennstendt.). Active compounds contained in the gadung tubers are the alkaloid dioskorin, saponin, and tannins. These compounds are known to be pesticidal and highly toxic to insects. This research aimed at assessing the toxicity effect of gadung tuber extract against larvae of P. xylostella, feeding inhibition, the number of formed pupae and emerged adult. The research was conducted in Sub-Laboratory of Toxicology and Rearing, Plant Pest and Disease Department, Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang, on January 2016 until June 2016. The experiment was arranged in Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 4 replications, each treatment consisted of twenty larvae of P. xylostella. For this experiment, there were 7 different treatments: 0 ppm (control), 10.000 ppm, 20.000 ppm, 30.000 ppm, 40.000 ppm, 50.000 ppm and 60.000 ppm of gadung tuber extract. The data was analyzed by using ANOVA and Duncan test at 5% level of significant, and continued with probit analysis to determine the value of Median Lethal Concentration (LC50) and Median Lethal Time (LT50) by using Probit Analysis Hsin Chi Software. If the control is death (less than 20%) then the percentage of death is corrected by the Abbott (1987) formula. The results showed that the application of gadung tubers extract can be used as an alternative to P. xylostella pest control with LC50 was 41.773,40 ppm and LT50 for each concentration was 368,54 hours, 307,68 hours, 174,43 hours, 120,68 hours, 97,97 hours and 73,45 hours. The application of gadung tuber extracts is able to inhibit the activity of feeding the larvae of P. xylostella up to 73.28%. The success of pupa establishment on P. xylostella in gadung tuber extract treatment of 60.000 ppm was 30.03%. The success of normal and abnormal imago establishment on P. xylostella in gadung tuber extract treatment of 60.000 ppm were 14.56% and 5%, respectively.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/549/051809660
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hama tanaman, kubis, Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), Diamondback Moth
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 15 Feb 2019 02:35
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2021 13:04
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/13152
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