Preferensi Dan Biologi Tungau Predator Blattisocius Keegani Dan Cheyletus Eruditus Pada Tungau Gudang Tyrophagus Longior

Wardani, EdinaKusuma (2016) Preferensi Dan Biologi Tungau Predator Blattisocius Keegani Dan Cheyletus Eruditus Pada Tungau Gudang Tyrophagus Longior. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acaridae) merupakan salah satu hama penting pada produk bahan pangan simpanan yang sering ditemukan pada gandum, beras, beras jagung, beras ketan, dan produk olahan susu seperti susu bubuk dan keju. Pengendalian serangga dan tungau pada bahan simpan masih menggunakan pestisida kimia seperti fungisida, insektisida, dan akarisida berdampak langsung pada musuh alami tungau. Salah satu pengendalian hayati ramah lingkungan yaitu dengan pemanfaatan musuh alami. Beberapa spesies tungau predator seperti Blattisocius keegani (Fox) (Ascidae) dan Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank) digunakan untuk mengendalikan populasi tungau yang merusak bahan pangan yang disimpan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk 1) mengkaji preferensi mangsa imago tungau B. keegani dan C. eruditus pada berbagai fase T. longior, 2) mengkaji biologi tungau B. keegani dan C. eruditus pada mangsa T. longior. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Sub Laboratorium Pusat Pengembangan Agens Hayati, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang pada bulan Agustus 2015 sampai Januari 2016. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua percobaan. Percobaan pertama yaitu uji preferensi, sedangkan percobaan kedua yaitu pengamatan biologi tungau B. keegani dan C. eruditus. Kedua percobaan ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL). Pada percobaan pertama, terdiri dari dua perlakuan pada masing-masing predator yaitu imago jantan dan betina. pada telur, larva, nimfa, dan imago T. longior. Percobaan menggunakan arena preferensi berupa cawan Petri kecil (d=6 cm) yang diberi tanda lingkaran dengan tinta merah sebanyak 4 bagian sebagai penanda peletakan mangsa. Pada masing-masing bagian ditempatkan 10 butir telur, 10 ekor larva, 10 ekor protonimfa, dan 10 ekor imago T. longior. Setelah semua fase mangsa diletakkan di arena, kemudian seekor tungau predator yang telah dilaparkan selama 6 jam ditempatkan pada bagian tengah arena preferensi. Setelah 24 jam, tungau predator disingkirkan dari arena preferensi dan banyaknya T. longior yang dimangsa dihitung. Pada percobaan kedua, terdiri dari dua perlakuan yaitu tungau predator B. keegani dan C. eruditus. Pengamatan perkembangan pradewasa dimulai dari telur yang baru diletakkan oleh imago betina tungau predator, pada arena percobaan yang telah ditempatkan berbagai fase mangsa T. longior yaitu 10 butir telur, 10 ekor larva, 10 ekor protonimfa, dan 10 ekor imago. Imago betina tungau predator yang telah bertelur dikeluarkan dari arena percobaan. Setiap arena percobaan disisakan satu butir telur. Perkembangan pradewasa tungau predator diamati dan dicatat setiap 3 jam sekali hingga menjadi imago. Pengamatan lama hidup imago dan keperidian diamati dari sepasang imago tungau predator yang diberi berbagai fase mangsa T. longior. Lama hidup imago dan jumlah telur yang diletakkan ii setiap hari dicatat sampai imago mati. Semua perlakuan pada percobaan pertama dan kedua, masing-masing diulang sebanyak 20 kali. Semua data tentang preferensi dan biologi tungau predator B. keegani dan C. eruditus dianalisis dengan uji F 5%, dan dilanjutkan dengan uji beda nyata terkecil 5%. Hasil pengamatan preferensi menunjukkan bahwa tungau betina B. keegani dan C. eruditus lebih memilih telur daripada larva, protonimfa, dan imagoT. longior. Betina B. keegani memangsa telur, larva, protonimfa, dan imago T. longior masing-masing 7,05, 6,30, 4,15, dan 0,95 per hari. Betina C. eruditus memangsa telur, larva, protonimfa, dan imago T. longior masing-masing 7,40, 5,60, 3,45, dan 2,40 per hari. Hasil pengamatan biologi menunjukkan bahwa perkembangan pradewasa dan siklus hidup tungau predator B. keegani lebih singkat daripada C. eruditus. Rataan lama perkembangan pradewasa dan siklus hidup tungau B. keegani adalah 8,86 dan 12,26 hari. Lama hidup imago jantan dan betina tungau B. keegani adalah 21,05 dan 24,25 hari serta keperidian 8,50 butir. Rataan lama perkembangan pradewasa dan siklus hidup tungau C. eruditus adalah 11,01 dan 14,11 hari. Lama hidup imago jantan dan betina tungau C. eruditus adalah 10,35 dan 16,40 hari serta keperidian 41,80 butir.

English Abstract

Tyrophagus longior (Gervais) (Acaridae) is one of the important pests of stored food material products commonly found on wheat, rice, corn rice, glutinous rice, and dairy products such as powdery milk and cheese. The pest control on stored materials is conducted by using chemical pesticides such as fungicide, insecticide and acaricide which directly can affect the mite’s natural enemies. One of the environmentally friendly biological controls is the use of natural enemies. Several species of predatory mites, such as Blattisocius keegani (Fox) (Ascidae) and Cheyletus eruditus (Schrank), can be used to control the population of mites which damage stored food materials. The objective of the research were 1) to know preferences B. keegani and C. eruditus adult on various phases of T. longior prey, 2) to study the biology of predatory mite B. keegani and C. eruditus on T. longior. The research was conducted at the Sub-Laboratory of Biological Agent Development Center, Department of Plant Pest and Disease, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang from August 2015 to January 2016. The research consisted of two experiments. The first experiment was to know their preference to the kind of prey, while the second experiment was to study the biology of B. keegani and C. eruditus. The design of two experiments were Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The first experiment consisted of two treatments on each predator i.e. male and female adults to prefer the eggs, larvae, protonymphs or adults of T. longior. The second experiment used preference arena i.e. a Petri dish (d=6 cm) which was drawn 4 circles as prey position markers on it. On each circle was put, 10 eggs, 10 larvae, 10 protonymphs, and 10 adult of T. longior. After all the prey were placed on the arena, then the starved predatory mite B. keegani or C.eruditus was put on the center of the preference arena. After 24 hours, the predatory mite was taken out from the preference arena and predated T. longior mites were counted. The second experiment consisted of two treatments i.e. two predatory mites B. keegani and C. eruditus. The pre adult development observation started with the newly layed eggs of B. keegani or C. eruditus were placed on the arena, which has been provided by 10 eggs, 10 larvae, 10 protonymphs, and 10 adult T. longior. The female predatory mite, which already laid eggs, were taken out from the experimental arena. One egg was left on each experimental arena. The development of B. keegani or C. eruditus was observed and recorded once every 3 hours until the adult stage. The longevity and fecundity of the male and female B. keegani or C. eruditus were provided various stage of T. longior as prey. Their longevity and fecundity were recorded. All treatment in the first and second experiments were replicated 20 times. All data of the preference and biology iv were analyzed with F test at the error level of 5% and continued with the Least Significance Difference (LSD) at the error level of 5%. The female of B. keegani and C. eruditus preferred to consume more eggs of T. longior rather than the larvae, protonymphs and the adults of T. longior. B. keegani preyed upon eggs, larvae, protonymphs and adults of T. longior were 7.05, 6.30, 4.15 and 0.95, respectively. C. eruditus preyed upon eggs, larvae, protonymphs and adults of T. longior were 7.40, 5.60, 3.45 and 2.40, respectively. The biological observation results showed that the pre adult development and life cycle of B. keegani was shorten than C. eruditus. The average pre adult development time and longevity of B. keegani were 8.86 and 12.26 days, respectively. The average longevity of B. keegani male and female were 21.05 and 24.25 days, respectively. The average fecundity of B. keegani was 8.50 eggs. The average pre adult development time and life cycles of C. eruditus were 11.01 and 14.11 days, respectively. The average longevity of C. eruditus male and female were 10.35 and 16.40 days, respectively. The average fecundity of C. eruditus was 41.80 eggs.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/383/ 051607298
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Kustati
Date Deposited: 09 Aug 2016 10:49
Last Modified: 09 Aug 2016 10:49
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131378
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