Biologi Dan Preferensi Mangsa Tungau Predator Zetzellia Sp. Pada Tungau Panonychus Citri Dan Tetranychus Sp.

Mubarok, AhmadMushoffan (2016) Biologi Dan Preferensi Mangsa Tungau Predator Zetzellia Sp. Pada Tungau Panonychus Citri Dan Tetranychus Sp. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tungau Panonychus citri (McGregor) dan Tetranychus sp. (Tetranychidae) merupakan hama penting tanaman pertanian. Serangan tungau ini dapat menyebabkan penurunan hasil panen pada tanaman jeruk, alpukat, buncis, kapas, pear, plum dan berbagai jenis tanaman lain. Salah satu Artropoda predator dari Sub-kelas Acari yang mampu mengendalikan tungau P. citri dan Tetranychus sp. yaitu Zetzellia sp. (Stigmaeidae). Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk mengkaji biologi dan preferensi Zetzellia sp. pada mangsa P. citri dan Tetranychus sp. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli sampai November 2015 di Sub Laboratorium Pusat Pengembangan Agens Hayati, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. Penelitian ini terdiri dari dua penelitian yaitu 1) mengkaji pengaruh jenis mangsa terhadap biologi Zetzellia sp. 2) uji preferensi mangsa Zetzellia sp. terhadap P. citri dan Tetranychus sp. Percobaan disusun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok. Kedua percobaan dilakukan pada arena percobaan berupa cawan Petri plastik (d=9 cm, t=1,5 cm) dengan daun apel (2 x 2 cm). Percobaan biologi terdiri dari dua perlakuan mangsa, yaitu P. citri dan Tetranychus sp. Masing-masing perlakuan diulang sebanyak 20 kali. Pengamatan perkembangan pradewasa Zetzellia sp. diamati dari satu telur, dan sudah ditempatkan fase mangsa telur, larva, nimfa, dan imago P. citri atau Tetranychus sp. yang melimpah. Telur diamati setiap hari sampai menetas dan setelah telur menetas pengamatan dilakukan setiap 3 jam sampai menjadi imago. Pengamatan lama hidup imago dan keperidian Zetzellia sp. dilakukan dengan mencatat lama hidup imago dan jumlah telur yang diletakkan setiap hari sampai imago mati. Penelitian uji preferensi dilakukan dengan menempatkan imago betina Zetzellia sp. dan 10 telur, 10 larva, 10 nimfa, 10 imago tungau P. citri dan Tetranychus sp. pada satu arena dan diulang sebanyak 20 kali. Setelah 24 jam banyaknya tungau yang dimangsa Zetzellia sp. dihitung. Data perkembangan pradewasa, keperidian, lama hidup imago betina, lama hidup imago jantan, dan preferensi pada perbandingan jenis mangsa P. citri dan Tetranychus sp. dianalisis menggunakan uji t pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Sedangkan data preferensi pada perbandingan semua fase mangsa P. citri dan Tetranychus sp. dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam pada taraf kesalahan 5%, apabila hasil analisis tersebut menunjukkan pengaruh nyata maka dilanjutkan dengan uji beda nyata terkecil pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Hasil pengamatan biologi menunjukkan bahwa tungau predator Zetzellia sp. lebih sesuai pada mangsa P. citri dibandingkan Tetranychus sp. terlihat dari perkembangan pradewasa yang lebih singkat (11,45 hari), hidup imago betina dan jantan yang lebih lama (13,20 dan 11,65 hari), dan keperidian yang lebih tinggi (30,10 butir). Hasil pengamatan preferensi menunjukkan bahwa Zetzellia sp. lebih memilih fase mangsa telur P. citri dibandingkan telur Tetranychus sp., serta fase larva, nimfa, imago P. citri dan Tetranychus sp. Hal tersebut terlihat dari banyaknya jumlah telur P. citri yang dimangsa (2,65 butir).

English Abstract

Mites, Panonychus citri (McGregor) and Tetranychus sp. (Tetranychidae) are an important pests of agricultural crops. The mite attacks may lead to the yield decrease of citrus, avocado, bean, cotton, pear, plum and many other crop kinds. One of arthropod predators from Sub-class Acari that capable for controlling P. citri and Tetranychus sp. is Zetzellia sp (Stigmaeidae). The objective of the research was to study the biology and preference of Zetzellia sp. on P. citri and Tetranychus sp. The research was conducted from July to November 2015 at the Sub Laboratory of Biological Agents Development Center, Plant Pest and Diseases Departemen, Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang. The research consisted of two experiments that 1) the influence of prey species on the biology of Zetzellia sp., 2) the prey preference test of Zetzellia sp. toward P. citri and Tetranychus sp. The research used the block randomized design. Both of experiments were conducted on the trial arena by using plastic Petri dishes (d = 9 cm, h = 1.5 cm) with the apple leaf (2 x 2 cm). The biology experiment consisted of two prey treatments, i.e. P. citri and Tetranychus sp. Each treatments was replicated 20 times. The immature development of Zetzellia sp. was observed from one egg, and was provided with plenty number of eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults P. citri or Tetranychus sp. The egg was observed everyday until hatched, and after being hatched the observations was conducted every 3 hours until becoming adult. The longevity and fecundity of Zetzellia sp. was observed by recording the adult life span and daily number of oviposition eggs until the adult death. The preference test experiment was conducted by placing the adult female Zetzellia sp. and was provided by 10 eggs, 10 larvae, 10 nymphs, 10 adults of P. citri and Tetranychus sp in one arena. The experiment was replicated 20 times. After 24 hours, the number of predated mites by Zetzellia sp. were counted. The data of immature development, fecundity, female longevity, male longevity, and preference on comparison type of prey P. citri and Tetranychus sp. were analyzed by using t-test at 5% error level. While the data of preference on comparison all mite stage of P. citri and Tetranychus sp. were analyzed by using analysis of variance at 5% error level followed by least significant difference test of 5% error level. The biology observation results indicate that the Zetzellia sp. were more suitable on P. citri than Tetranychus sp. as shown by shorter immature development (11.45 days), longer life spans of male and female adults (13.20 and 11.65 days), and higher fecundity (30.10 eggs). The preference observation results showed that Zetzellia sp. preferred the eggs of P. citri than eggs Tetranychus sp., and the larvae, nymphs, adults of both mites. That was shown by the number of P. citri eggs preyed on (2.65 eggs).

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2016/147/ 051604512
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Kustati
Date Deposited: 30 May 2016 09:15
Last Modified: 30 May 2016 09:15
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/131119
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