Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Bakteri Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Lunak pada Umbi Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume

Azizah, NoviaNuril (2015) Isolasi dan Karakterisasi Bakteri Penyebab Penyakit Busuk Lunak pada Umbi Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Penyakit busuk lunak merupakan salah satu penyakit pasca panen tanaman umbi-umbian. Penyakit ini dapat menyerang ketika masih di lapangan, saat pengangkutan, di tempat penyimpanan, dan selama pemasaran. Penyakit busuk lunak dapat menyerang beberapa umbi antara lain wortel, kentang, dan porang. Di sentra produksi porang di Kabupaten Madiun, Jawa Timur terdapat serangan busuk lunak pada umbi porang di tempat penyimpanan dengan tingkat kerusakan mencapai 60%. Serangan busuk lunak pada porang tersebut menyebabkan kerugian bagi petani karena umbi yang terserang tidak bisa diolah menjadi tepung porang dan tidak bisa digunakan menjadi bibit. Penyakit busuk lunak yang menyerang umbi porang di Kabupaten Madiun belum diketahui penyebabnya. Serangan penyakit tersebut dapat diturunkan dengan diterapkannya suatu metode pengendalian yang tepat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jenis dan karakter patogen penyebab busuk lunak pada umbi porang di Kabupaten Madiun melalui kegiatan isolasi dan karakterisasi. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Bakteriologi, Jurusan Hama Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya mulai bulan Mei hingga Desember 2014. Penelitian ini meliputi isolasi bakteri dari umbi porang yang bergejala busuk lunak, uji busuk lunak pada kentang, uji hipersensitif, uji patogenisitas, karakterisasi bakteri penyebab busuk lunak pada porang secara morfologi, fisiologi dan biokimia, serta uji perlakuan fisik pada bakteri penyebab busuk lunak pada umbi porang. Dari hasil pengamatan, gejala busuk lunak pada umbi porang yaitu umbi tampak berwarna cokelat kehitaman, berlendir, kulit umbi yang terserang mudah mengelupas. Umbi disertai bau yang tidak sedap serta terdapat masa bakteri yang keluar dari dalam jaringan saat dicelupkan ke dalam air. Ketika umbi yang sakit dibelah, umbi tampak busuk dan teksturnya lunak, dan batas infeksinya ada yang jelas dan ada yang tidak jelas. Pembusukan dimulai dari tepi umbi yang kemudian menyebar ke seluruh bagian umbi. Bagian yang terserang semakin lama akan berwarna kuning kehitaman. Dari hasil isolasi, didapatkan 3 koloni bakteri yang mampu menyebabkan busuk lunak pada kentang, menghasilkan reaksi hipersensitif, dan mampu menyebabkan busuk lunak pada umbi porang. Isolat tersebut adalah B2, 5G, dan 5HI. Berdasarkan uji secara morfologi, fisiologi dan biokimia, ketiga strain bakteri penyebab busuk lunak pada umbi porang memiliki karakter yang berbeda. Berdasarkan uji identifikasi hingga tingkat genus, isolat B2 dan 5HI adalah bakteri Gram negatif, bersifat anaerob positif, dan koloni berwarna putih pada media YDC sehingga bakteri tersebut adalah Erwinia sp., isolat 5G adalah bakteri Gram negatif, bersifat anaerob positif, dan koloni berwarna kuning pada media YDC sehingga bakteri tersebut adalah Pantoea sp. Ketiga strain tidak mampu tumbuh pada suhu 10°C dan 52°C, pH 4 dan 11, serta pada kadar NaCl 12%.

English Abstract

Soft rot disease is a desease of post-harvest tuber crops. This disease can attack plant in the field, during the transport, in storage, and in the market. Soft rot disease may attack some tubers including carrots (Daucus carota L.), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), and porang (Amorphophallus muelleri B.). In porang production center in Madiun, East Java, there were soft rot disease while in storage with the damage level reached 60%. Soft rot in porang caused losses to farmers because the infected tuber can not be processed to porang flour and can not be used as seed. The cause of soft rot diseases that attack Porang tubers in Madiun has not been to be identified. This problems can be minimized by the application of the integrated control methods. The purpose of this study was to determine the type and the character of pathogens causing soft rot in porang tubers in Madiun through isolation and characterization. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Bacteriology, Department of Pest and Plant Disease, University of Brawijaya, from May to December 2014. This study indcluded the isolation of bacteria from Porang tuber which was indicated attacked by soft rot, test of soft rot in potatoes, hypersensitivity test, pathogenicity test, morphology, physiology and biochemistry characterization of bacteria that caused soft rot on porang, and the last was physical treatment test on bacteria that caused soft rot in porang tubers. Based on identification of soft rot symptoms, porang tuber looks brown-blackish, slimy, tubers skin which was infected was easily to peel. Tubers have bad smell and there were bacteria mass out from the tissues while dipped into the water. When the infected tubers cleaved, it looked rotten and had soft texture, and there were a limitation between the clear and the unclear infection. The decaying started from the edge of the tubers then spread to the all parts of the tuber. The affected areas were changed to yellow-black gardually. From the isolation results, there were 3 colonies of bacteria indicated causing soft rot in potatoes, hypersensitivity reactions, and indicated causing soft rot in porang tubers. These isolates were B2, 5G, and 5HI. Based on the morphology, physiology, and biochemistry test, the three strains of the bacteria that potentially caused soft rot in porang tubers were different. Based on the genus test identification B2 and 5HI isolates were Gram-negative bacteria, anaerobic positive, and had white colonies on YDC medium, so the bacteria are Erwinia sp., 5G isolates were Gram-negative bacteria, anaerobic positive, and had yellow colonies on YDC medium, so the bacteria are Pantoea sp. All three strains were unable to grow at 10°C and 52°C, pH 4 and 11,5 and the NaCl content of 12%.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/152/051502673
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono Wahyono
Date Deposited: 09 Apr 2015 09:07
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2021 06:24
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130130
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