Eksplorasi Jamur Patogen Serangga Di Rizosfir Cabai Dan Pengujian Patogenisitasnya Pada Spodoptera Litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

Anggarini, RrAstrieSeptianing (2015) Eksplorasi Jamur Patogen Serangga Di Rizosfir Cabai Dan Pengujian Patogenisitasnya Pada Spodoptera Litura Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Rizosfir berperan sebagai habitat jamur patogen serangga. Rizosfir dengan bahan organik yang tinggi menyediakan sumber nutrisi, oksigen dan air sehingga dapat mendukung kehidupan berbagai kelompok mikroorganisme tanah. Jamur Metarhizium sp. adalah patogen serangga yang berpotensi mengendalikan beberapa serangga hama seperti S. litura, Crocidolomia pavonana F. dan Plutella xylostella L. Jamur Beauveria sp., dan Metarhizium sp. berhasil diisolasi dari rizosfir pakis. Isolasi contoh tanah dari rizosfir kubis diperoleh isolat Beauveria bassiana yang virulen terhadap P. xylostella. Jamur patogen oportunistik Fusarium sp. dan Penicillium sp., serta jamur patogen serangga sejati Metarhizium sp., Verticillium sp., Paecilomyces sp., dan Beauveria sp. diperoleh dari rizosfir kedelai. Jamur patogen serangga yang berhasil diisolasi dari rizosfir cabai adalah genus Fusarium, Aspergillus, Metarhizium dan Trichoderma dari wilayah ketinggian tempat berbeda. Faktor ketinggian tempat dan aplikasi pestisida dapat mempengaruhi keberadaan jamur patogen serangga di rizosfir. Pemanfaatan jamur patogen serangga sebagai agens pengendali memerlukan isolat virulen yang berasal dari ekosistem di mana hama berada. Penelitian ini menggunakan contoh tanah yang diambil di rizosfir cabai dari berbagai wilayah ketinggian tempat dan aplikasi pestisida berbeda, sehingga diperoleh jenis jamur patogen serangga yang virulen bagi S. litura. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Laboratorium Hama Tumbuhan, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang mulai bulan Februari sampai Juli 2014. Metode yang digunakan pada penelitian ini yaitu eksplorasi pengambilan contoh tanah dan metode umpan serangga Tenebrio molitor L. untuk mengisolasi jamur patogen serangga di rizosfir cabai. Rancangan percobaan pengujian patogenisitas isolat jamur patogen serangga menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan lima perlakuan dan diulang sebanyak lima kali. Larva S. litura instar II diinokulasi ke dalam suspensi isolat Metarhizium sp. dengan konsentrasi 106 konidia/ml, sedangkan perlakuan kontrol selama 30 detik dicelupkan ke dalam akuades steril. Setiap perlakuan menggunakan 20 ekor larva dan diberi pakan daun bayam yang diganti setiap hari. Variabel yang diamati yaitu mortalitas dan waktu kematian larva S. litura selama 10 hari. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji F pada taraf nyata 5%. Bila terdapat pengaruh yang nyata pada perlakuan, maka dilanjutkan dengan uji BNT pada taraf nyata 5%. Hasil dari penelitian ini diperoleh jamur patogen serangga genus Metarhizium, Penicillium, Aspergillus dan Fusarium dari contoh tanah rizosfir cabai pada lokasi eksplorasi di Kota Malang dan Batu. Larva S. litura terinfeksi Metarhizium sp. berwarna coklat kehitaman, tubuh kaku. Tahap selanjutnya ukuran tubuh larva menyusut, mengkerdil. Miselia tumbuh di permukaan kutikula bagian ekor. Akan tetapi tidak semua larva terinfeksi akan muncul hifa yang tumbuh keluar dari kutikula. Hasil analisis statistik menunjukkan bahwa uji empat isolat Metarhizium sp. berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap tingkat mortalitas larva S. litura instar II. Berdasarkan hasil analisis sidik ragam menunjukkan bahwa inokulasi empat isolat Metarhizium sp., berpengaruh sama terhadap waktu kematian larva S. litura instar II. Hal ini diduga disebabkan oleh viabilitas isolat jamur dan ketahanan tubuh pada kutikula serangga.

English Abstract

Rhizosphere role as habitat of entomopathogenic fungi. Rhizosphere highly organic matter provides a source of nutrients, oxygen and water that supported life cycle of various soil microorganisms. Metarhizium sp. are potentially to pests control such as S. litura, Crocidolomia pavonana F. and Plutella xylostella L. Beauveria sp. and Metarhizium sp. were isolated from the rhizosphere of fern. Isolation soil samples in the rhizosphere of cabbage obtained Beauveria bassiana isolates that virulent against P. xylostella. In the rhizosphere of soybean obtained opportunistic pathogens are Fusarium sp. and Penicillium sp., as well as insect pathogenic fungi are Metarhizium sp., Verticillium sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Beauveria sp. The entomopathogenic fungi were isolated from the rhizosphere of chili with different altitude regions are genera of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma and Metarhizium. Altitude and pesticides can affect the presence of entomopathogenic fungi in the rhizosphere. Using entomopathogenic fungi as pest control requires virulent isolates derived from ecosystem where the pest are. This study used soil samples were carried out in the rhizosphere of chili from different altitude and pesticides regions, in order to obtain the diversity of virulent entomopathogenic fungi for S. litura. This research was conducted at the Plant Pest Laboratory, Pest and Plant Disease Department, Agriculture Faculty, Brawijaya University, Malang on February until July 2014. The methods in this research were soil sample exploration and insect bait method of Tenebrio molitor L. to isolated entomopathogenic fungi in the rhizosphere of chili. The design of pathogenicity experiments of isolates insect pathogenic fungi using a Completely Randomized Design with five treatment and replicated five times. Second instar larvae of S. litura were immersed for 30 seconds into isolates of Metarhizium sp. suspension containing 106 conidia ml-1, while for the control treatment, larvae were dipped into distilled water. Each treatment, having batch of 20 larvae, were fed spinach leaves. Regularly replaced with fresh ones every day. The variables of observation include mortality and mean time to death recorded during 10 days of observation. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance, if the treatment response was significantly different than followed by LSD test at 5% significance level. The results of this study obtained entomopathogenic fungi genera of Metarhizium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Fusarium that can be isolated from soil samples in the rhizosphere of chili on exploration sites at Malang and Batu. S. litura larvae infected with Metarhizium sp. was blackish brown and stiff. The next stage, body size of larvae are shrinks and dwarf. Mycelium growing on the surface of the abdomen cuticle. However, not all infected larvae will emerge hyphae that grow out of the cuticle. The statistical analysis showed that four isolates of Metarhizium sp. significantly affect the mortality rate second instar larvae of S. litura. Based on the analysis of variance, mean time of death larvae of S. litura found that the time for causing death of larvae inoculated was same. This is caused by a fungal isolates viability and endurance on the insect cuticle.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2015/150/051502654
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono Wahyono
Date Deposited: 09 Apr 2015 08:29
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2021 06:21
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130128
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