Pengaruh Aplikasi Kompos dan Mikoriza Glomus sp. terhadap Pertumbuhan Akar Wangi (Vetiveria zizanioides) dan Serapan Kadmium (Cd) pada Tanah Sawah Tercemar Limbah Industri.

Fitria, IndahLailatil (2014) Pengaruh Aplikasi Kompos dan Mikoriza Glomus sp. terhadap Pertumbuhan Akar Wangi (Vetiveria zizanioides) dan Serapan Kadmium (Cd) pada Tanah Sawah Tercemar Limbah Industri. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Pembangunan industri saat ini semakin bertambah pesat dan kebanyakan dibangun pada kawasan lahan pertanian. Air limbah industri mengandung logam berat, seperti Hg, Fe, Cd, Cu, Zn, dan Mn yang mengakibatkan pencemaran lingkungan. Logam berat Kadmium (Cd) lebih mudah diakumulasi oleh tanaman dibandingkan dengan logam berat lainnya. Tanaman pangan yang ditanam akan mengandung logam berat dan membawa dampak buruk bagi kesehatan manusia. Salah satu kasus tanah sawah tercemar limbah industri terdapat di daerah Sepanjang, Sidoarjo, Jawa Timur. Tindakan pemulihan perlu dilakukan agar tanah yang tercemar dapat digunakan kembali dengan aman. Fitoremediasi, yaitu penggunaan tumbuhan untuk menghilangkan polutan dari tanah atau perairan yang tercemar. Tanaman yang digunakan untuk fitoremediasi harus merupakan tanaman hiperakumulator dan non pangan. Pada penelitian ini digunakan tanaman akar wangi (Vetiveria zizanioides) untuk fitoremediasi. Akar wangi yang merupakan tanaman untuk kerajinan, industri minyak essensial fiksatif dan penahan erosi. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah : (1) mengetahui pengaruh aplikasi kompos terhadap pertumbuhan dan serapan Kadmium (Cd) pada tanaman akar wangi (Vetiveria zizanioides), (2) mengetahui pengaruh aplikasi mikoriza Glomus sp. terhadap pertumbuhan dan serapan Kadmium (Cd) pada tanaman akar wangi (Vetiveria zizanioides), (3) mengetahui pengaruh efektifitas interaksi kompos dan mikoriza terhadap pertumbuhan dan serapan Kadmium (Cd) pada tanaman akar wangi (Vetiveria zizanioides). Penelitian dilaksanakan di rumah kaca Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Widyagama pada bulan Agustus hingga November 2013. Analisa Laboratorium dilakukan di laboratorium kimia tanah dan biologi tanah Jurusan Tanah, Fakultas Pertanian serta laboratorium analitik kimia, Jurusan Kimia, Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam, Universitas Brawijaya. Rancangan percobaan dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial, dengan faktor pertama adalah kompos dan mikoriza sebagai faktor kedua serta diulang sebanyak 3 kali. Parameter yang diamati adalah tinggi tanaman, berat kering per tanaman, jumlah anakan, akar terinfeksi mikoriza dan serapan Cd pada akar dan tajuk tanaman akar wangi. Pengolahan data hasil pengamatan menggunakan uji F taraf 5 %. Apabila terdapat pengaruh nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan melakukan uji BNT taraf 5 % untuk mengetahui adanya perbedaan diantara perlakuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa aplikasi mikoriza Glomus sp. memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap parameter pertumbuhan tanaman yaitu jumlah anakan dan akar terinfeksi mikoriza. Aplikasi mikoriza telah meningkatkan jumlah anakan sebesar 25.30 % dan akar terinfeksi mikoriza sebesar 52,08 %. Parameter Pertumbuhan yang lain seperti tinggi tanaman, berat kering per tanaman maupun serapan Kadmium oleh akar wangi tidak dipengruhi oleh aplikasi mikoriza. Aplikasi kompos dan interaksi kompos - mikoriza tidak memberikan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap pertumbuhan dan serapan Cd pada tanaman akar wangi.

English Abstract

Nowadays, the building of factory is increase and mostly, it is built on agriculture land. Industrial waste water contains heavy metal, such as: Hg, Fe, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Mn which effected environment pollution. Cadmium (Cd) is easier to be accumulated by plant if it is compared with others heavy metal. Crop which was planted could contain heavy metal and it brings bad effect to human healthy. One case of paddy soil was polluted by industrial waste at Sepanjang, Sidoarjo, East Java. Remediation action was needed, in order to contaminated soil can be used again safely. Phytoremediation, is using of plant to clean up pollutant from soil or waters which is polluted. Plant which is used for phytoremediation must have a hyperaccumulate characteristic and they were non crop plant. Vetiver plants (Vetiveria zizanioides) used for phytoremediation purpose in this research. Vetiver plants (Vetiveria zizanioides), which used for handicraft, essential fixation oil industry, erosion resistor and also in many cases for phytoremediation in contaminated site. The objectives of this research was to determine the influence of compost application to growth and absorption of Cadmium (Cd) on vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), the influence of mycorrhiza Glomus sp. application to growth and absorption of Cadmium (Cd) on vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) and the influence of mycorrhiza and compost interaction effectivity to growth and absorption of Cadmium (Cd) on vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides). This research was conducted at glasshouse of Agriculture Faculty, Widyagama University from August to November 2013. Laboratory analysis was conducted at soil chemistry and soil biology laboratory in Soil Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University and chemistry analytic laboratory, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Math and Sciences, Brawijaya University. Experimental design that used in this research was factorial complete randomize design. The experimental design involved factorial variation in compost addition and mycorrhiza aplication with three time of replication. Plant height, dry weght, total of plant, mycorrhizal root colonization and absorption of Cd on root and shoot was observed. The data were analized used f test 5 % error level and followed by Least Significant Different test of 5%. Result of research showed that Glomus sp. mycorrhiza application gave significant influence to palnt growth, i.e.: total of plant and mycorrhizal root colonization. application of mycorrhiza has developed total of plant (25.30 %) and mycorrhizal root colonization (52.08 %). Plant height, dry weight and absorption of Cd by root and shoot was not influenced by mycorrhiza application. Application of compost and combination of compost - mycorrhiza didn’t give significant influence to growth and absorption of Cd on vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides).

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2014/74/051402048
Subjects: 500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 551 Geology, hydrology, meteorology
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Ilmu Tanah
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono Wahyono
Date Deposited: 21 Mar 2014 07:59
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2021 03:34
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/130034
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