Dampak Intervensi Spesies Eksotik Pada Keberhasilan Revegetasi Area Konservasi Sumber Janitri, Batu Jawa Timur

Fiqa, Abban Putri (2017) Dampak Intervensi Spesies Eksotik Pada Keberhasilan Revegetasi Area Konservasi Sumber Janitri, Batu Jawa Timur. Magister thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Sumber Janitri merupakan salah satu mata air yang terletak di Kota Batu, Jawa Timur, yang selama ini dipergunakan oleh penduduk setempat untuk mengairi ladang sayur milik mereka. Akibat konversi dari hutan alami menjadi ladang sayur, jumlah debit air dari Sumber Janitri semakin menurun. Pada tahun 2004, dilakukan revegetasi di area konservasi Sumber Janitri oleh pemerintah daerah, bekerjasama dengan Kebun Raya Purwodadi. Permasalahan yang dihadapi pada area konservasi Sumber Janitri adalah tumbuhnya spesies eksotik sebagai contohnya adalah Ageratina riparia dan Penisetum purpureum, yang mendominasi tumbuhan bawah pada area revegetasi. Mendominasinya beberapa tanaman eksotik yang bersifat invasif ini dikhawatirkan akan mengganggu stabilitas ekosistem di area konservasi Sumber Janitri. Berdasarkan hal tersebut dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas revegetasi yang telah dilakukan di area konservasi Sumber Janitri terkait keberadaan spesies eksotik dalam kawasan, berdasarkan nilai jasa layanan lingkungan yang dihasilkannya, dibandingkan dengan reference area sebagai kontrol positif dan lahan pertanian di sekitar area sebagai kontrol negatif. Penelitian dilakukan dalam dua tahap, tahap pertama adalah eksplorasi profil masing-masing area penelitian dengan parameter yang diamati meliputi kualitas vegetasi dengan variabel yang diukur adalah dari indeks diversitas (H’), kekayaan jenis (R), keberadaan spesies eksotik berupa tutupan tanaman eksotik dalam kawasan dan degree of exotism. Selain itu diamati pula struktur vegetasi di area tersebut, meliputi nilai kerapatan, dominansi dan frekuensi masing-masing vegetasi dan tutupan kanopi dalam plot pengamatan, serta evaluasi. Selain itu, diamati pula kondisi biofisik tanah (BI, BJ, porositas, C-organik dan bahan organik) pada masing-masing plot pengamatan. Layanan ekosistem yang dihasilkan (stok karbon, infiltrasi tanah, spesies yang menjadi habitat epifit, spesies pakan herbivora, dan kadar air) juga diamati sebagai bahan evaluasi terhadap efektivitas revegetasi yang telah dilakukan. Dalam mengevaluasi keberhasilan, dilakukan pengamatan terhadap fluktuasi debit selama 1 tahun sebagai data tambahan. Penilaian atas keberhasilan revegetasi juga dilihat dari bagaimana persepsi masyarakat mengenai keberhasilan revegetasi. Hasil pengamatan yang dilakukan kemudian dibandingkan antar lokasi dengan MANOVA dan juga dibandingkan dengan hasil pemantauan yang dilakukan tahun 2010 lalu, untuk mengetahui variasi keberhasilan revegetasi. Pengukuran layanan ekosistem ini kemudian dianalisis dengan biplot dan cluster untuk mengetahui sejauh mana profil area revegetasi menyerupai karakter hutan sekunder sebagai reference area. Penelitian tahap kedua dilakukan dengan pembuatan model dari seluruh variabel profil ekosistem yang telah diukur sebelumnya untuk mengetahui pengaruh intervensi spesies eksotik terhadap kualitas layanan ekosistem yang dihasilkan. Hasil analisis dengan model dan hasil Gap dan root cause analysis kemudian akan menjadi dasar penyusunan rekomendasi pengelolaan area konservasi selanjutnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada parameter struktur vegetasi, area revegetasi memiliki kerapatan yang jauh lebih rendah bila dibandingkan dengan hutan sekunder, begitupula dengan nilai tutupan kanopinya. Pada parameter kualitas vegetasi, area revegetasi memiliki nilai indeks diversitas pohon, belta, dan tumbuhan bawah yang ix lebih tinggi bila dibandingkan dengan hutan sekunder dan nilainya stabil bila dibandingkan pengamtan tahun 2010, akan tetapi memiliki jumlah dan tutupan spesies eksotik yang lebih besar. Pada parameter kualitas biofisik tanah, area revegetasi memiliki nilai BI dan BJ yang lebih baik daripada di lahan pertanian, namun nilainya masih berbeda signifikan terhadap niali biofisik tanah di hutan sekunder. Akan tetapi, bahan organik tanah dan kandungan C-organik tanahnya paling rendah diantara ketiga area yang diamati.. Bagaimanapun, nilai yang terukur selama pengamatan tahun 2016 menunjukkan perbaikan daripada yang ditunjukkan saat pengamatan tahun 2010 yang lalu. Parameter jasa layanan lingkungan berupa stok karbon dalam kawasan, menunjukkan bahwa area revegetasi memiliki stok karbon total dalam kawasan yang paling rendah, hal ini terkait dengan rendahnya kerapatan pohon dalam kawasan dan rendahnya kandungan C-organik dalam tanahnya. Kandungan kadar air dalam tanah di area revegetasi nilainya bahkan tidak berbeda signifikan dengan di lahan pertanian, begitu juga dengan nilai infiltrasi tanahnya. Kondisi biofisik tanah di area pertanian yang cukup baik juga ditunjang dari perlakuan yang diberikan oleh petani pada area tersebut. Hasil evalusi efektivitas keberhasilan restorasi berdasarkan persepsi masyarakat dan data fluktuasi debit air selama satu tahun, menunjukkan bahwa masyarakat beranggapan revegetasi yang dilakukan di area konservasi Sumber Janitri cukup efektif. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari mata air yang debitnya tidak pernah mati selama satu tahun pengamatan, berbeda dengan yang terjadi pada tahun 2010 yang lalu. Efektivitas juga dapat dilihat berdasarkan parameter kelimpahan vegetasi baik pada tumbuhan bawah, belta, maupun pohon di sebagian area revegetasi memiliki indeks kesamaan Bray Curtis sebesar 80% dengan kondisi di hutan sekunder, sementara itu sebagian yang lain dalam proses menuju perbaikan. Sebagian besar lahan pertanian berada di kelompok yang berbeda dan secara keseluruhan berbeda dengan plot di sebagian besar area hutan sekunder dan area revegetasi. Penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa spesies eksotik berpengaruh terhadap jasa layanan lingkungan melalui penurunan kualitas biofisik tanah. Oleh karena itu pengendalian terhadap spesies eksotik perlu dilakukan misalnya dengan meningkatkan kerapatan tanaman asli pohon, pendiversifikasian jenis yang ditanam dan melakukan monitoring sekurang-kurangnya lima tahun sekali. Edukasi pada masyarakat juga perlu dilakukan untuk member pengertian akan bahaya spesies eksotik bagi ekosistem yang direvegetasi. Selain itu, konsolidasi dengan masyarakat juga perlu dilakukan agar masyarakat ikut menjaga area yang direvegetasi untuk keberhasilan program yang berkelanjutan.

English Abstract

Janitri water spring is one of the springs located in Batu City, East Java, which has been used by local people to irrigate their vegetable fields. As a result of conversion from natural forest to vegetable field, the amount of water discharge from Janitri water spring decreased. In 2004, a revegetation was made in the Janitri water spring conservation area by the local government, in collaboration with Purwodadi Botanical Garden. The problems encountered in the Janitri Sources conservation area are the growth of exotic species as examples are Ageratina riparia and Penisetum purpureum, which dominate the groundcover in the revegetation area. The dominance of some invasive exotic plants is feared to disrupt the ecosystem stability in the Janitri water spring conservation area. The aimed of this reserach is to find out the effectiveness of the revegetation that has been done in the conservation area of Sumber Janitri related to the existence of exotic species in the area, based on the value of the environmental services they produce, compared to reference area as positive control and agricultural land around the area as negative control. The study was conducted in two stages; the first step was the exploration of the profile of each research area with observed parameters including the quality of vegetation with the measured variables are the diversity index (H '), species richness (R), the exotic species coverage, and degree of exotism. In addition, vegetation structure was observed in the area, including the density, dominance, and frequency of each vegetation and canopy coverage in the observation plot. The next parameter is soil biophysical conditions (BI, BJ, porosity, C-organic and organic matter) which were observed in each observation plot. The ecosystem services (carbon stocks, soil infiltration, epiphytic habitat species, herbivorous feeding species and soil moisture) are also observed as an evaluation of the effectiveness of revegetation. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of revegetation program, observation of water debit fluctuation for 1 year was held as additional data. Assessment of the success of revegetation is also seen from how the public perception about the revegetation. The results of the observations were then compared between sites with MANOVA and also compared with the results of monitoring conducted in 2010, to determine the variation of the success of revegetation. The measurement of ecosystem services is then analyzed by biplot and cluster to determine the extent to which the revegetation area profile resembles secondary forest character as a reference area. The second phase of the research was done by modeling all variables of ecosystem profiles that have been measured previously to determine the effect of exotic species intervention on the quality of ecosystem services produced. The results of the analysis with the model and the results of Gap and root cause analysis will then become the basis for the preparation of the next conservation area management recommendations. The results showed that on vegetation structure parameters, the revegetation area has much lower density than the secondary forest, as well as the canopy covers value. In the vegetation quality parameters, the revegetation area has a higher index diversity of tree, sapling, and groundcover compared to secondary forests and is stable in value compared to xi 2010, but has a larger number and coverage of exotic species. In soil biophysical quality parameters, the revegetation area has BI and BJ values that are better than in agricultural land, but the value is still significantly different from the biophysical proportions of the soil in secondary forest. However, the soil organic matter and the soil C-organic content are the lowest among the three observed areas. However, the measured values during observations in 2016 show improvement over those shown in last 2010's observations. The environmental services parameter in the form of carbon stock in the area shows that the revegetation area has total carbon stock in the lowest area; this is related to the low density of trees in the area and the low soil C-organic content. The soil moisture in the revegetation area is not even significantly different from that in agricultural land, as well as the value of soil infiltration. The soil biophysical condition in the agricultural area is also well supported from the treatment given by the farmers in the area. The results of evaluating the effectiveness of restoration success based on community perception and fluctuation data of water debit for one year, indicating that the community considers revegetation conducted in Janitri water spring conservation area is quite effective. This can be seen from springs whose discharge never dies during one year of observation, in contrast to what happened in 2010 ago. The effectiveness can also be seen based on the parameters of vegetation abundance in the lower plants, saplings, and trees in some areas of revegetation having an 80% similarity index of Bray Curtis with secondary forest conditions, while others are in the process of improvement. Most agricultural lands are in different groups and completely different from plots in most of the secondary forest and revegetation areas. Research also shows that exotic species affect environmental services through biophysical degradation of soil. Therefore control of exotic species needs to be done, for example by increasing the density of native tree plants, diversification of species planted and monitoring at least five years. Community education should also be undertaken to provide an understanding of the dangers of exotic species for the revegetated ecosystem. In addition, consolidation with the community also needs to be done so that the community participates in maintaining the revegetated areas for the success of sustainable programs.

Item Type: Thesis (Magister)
Identification Number: TES/631.64/FIQ/d/2017/041706569
Uncontrolled Keywords: REVEGETATION, REVEGETATION - EVALUATION, CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES, INDONESIA - BATU (Malang), EXOTIC PLANTS
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.6 Clearing, drainage, revegetation
Divisions: S2/S3 > Magister Biologi, Fakultas MIPA
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 14 Aug 2017 08:36
Last Modified: 30 Dec 2020 12:31
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/1298
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