Karakterisasi dan Evaluasi Produktivitas Tanah Lom Berpasir dan Lom Berklei pada Kebun Kelapa Sawit.

Afdholullail, AkhmadLuthfi (2013) Karakterisasi dan Evaluasi Produktivitas Tanah Lom Berpasir dan Lom Berklei pada Kebun Kelapa Sawit. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Tanah perkebunan kelapa sawit yang telah lama diusahakan sekitar 5-10 tahun umumnya sudah mengalami kepadatan tanah, karena jumlah dan kontinuitas pori makro tanah rendah sehingga terjadi gangguan tata air tanah. Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah: (1) Mengevaluasi tingkat porositas dan pori tanah dihubungkan dengan permasalahan perkembangan akar dan produksi tanaman kelapa sawit pada tanah bertekstur lom berpasir dan lom berklei; (2) Mengevaluasi produksi kelapa sawit di perkebunan kelapa sawit , berdasarkan potensi sifat dan manajemen tanah pada tanah lom berpasir dan lom berklei.. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Desember 2012 sampai bulan Mei 2013 di perkebunan kelapa sawit PT. Astra Agro Lestari, Kumai, Pangkalanbun, Kalimantan Tengah, pada plot AMR OA blok 29 (tekstur lom berklei) dan OA blok 40 (tekstur lom berpasir). Kegiatan dilakukan dalam tiga tahap: (a) Penggalian dan pengamatan profil tanah, (b) Analisis tanah di laboratorium (c) Analisis dan interpretasi data. Dari data profil tanah yang sudah di deskripsi dan di analisis, terdapat 3 (tiga) lapisan tanah dengan simbol kedalaman Ap, Bw, dan Bt. Pada tanah lom berklei, horizon pertama dengan kedalaman 0-5 cm, kedua 5-75 cm, dan ketiga 75-175 cm. Sedangkan pada lom berpasir terdapat perbedaan pada horizon pertama dengan kedalaman 0-30 cm, kedua 30-100, serta ketiga 100-180 cm. Struktur tanah dari kedua blok, memiliki struktur tanah yang relatif sama, yakni mulai dari granular, gumpal membulat, sampai gumpal bersudut. Pada blok AMR OA-29 diketahui bahwa jenis tekstur tanah yang ada mulai dari lom klei berpasir (Sandy clay loam), lom, lom berklei, sampai klei. Sedangkan pada blok AMR OA-40, memilki kelas tekstur mulai dari lom berpasir, lom klei berpasir, sampai klei. Dari hasil analisis berat isi (BI) pada tanah lom berklei dan lom berpasir di dapat rata-rata nilai BI tanah meningkat dari horizon A ke horizon B. Di semua kedalaman, rata-rata nilai BI pada tanah lom berklei lebih rendah dibandingkan tanah lom berpasir. Berdasarkan nilai BI tanah pada lom berklei pada horison A (1,3 g/cm3) meningkat 10%-20% pada horizon B (1,4-1,5 g/cm3). Sedang pada lom berpasir BI tanah di lapisan B jauh lebih padat dari pada di lapisan A, dimana nilai rata-rata BI tanah dari horizon A (1,2 g/cm3) ke horizon B (1,5-1,7 g/cm3). Hal ini mungkin yang menyebabkan kontinuitas pori makro tanah terhambat yang bisa mengganggu tata air tanah perkebunan sawit. Pada tanah lom berklei, nilai rata-rata pH aktual pada kedalaman 0-5 cm tidak berbeda dengan pH di kedalaman 5-75 cm rata-rata 4,45; sedang pada kedalaman 75-175 cm lebih basa yaitu 4,92. Sedangkan pada lom berpasir cenderung menunjukkan pola sebaran pH yang berbeda dengan tanah lom berklei, dimana pH rata-rata cenderung menurun dengan meningkatnya kedalaman tanah, pada kedalaman 0-30 cm adalah 5,14; 30-100 cm adalah 4,98; 100-180 cm adalah 4,75. Tingginya tingkat kemasaman tanah di lapisan bawah pada tanah lom berpasir akan menghambat perkembangan akar tanaman di lapisan bawah, sehingga jumlah pori makro dan kontinuitas pori makro menjadi rendah.

English Abstract

Soil of oil palm plantation that has long been cultivated (about 5-10 years) are already compacted, due to the number of macropores and level and its continuity have lower causing disturbance on soil hydrology. The purpose of this study was: (1) Evaluate the level of soil porosity and its continuity in soil profile related to root development and production of oil palm on sandy loam and clay loam soils; (2) Evaluate the palm oil production in oil palm plantations, based on the potential properties and soil management on soil of sandy loam and clay loam. This study was conducted in December 2012 until May 2013 in the oil palm plantation PT. Astra Agro Lestari, Kumai, Pangkalanbun, Central Kalimantan, on plot 29 block AMR OA (clay loam) and OA block 40 (sandy loam). Activities were carried out in three stages: (a) Excavation and observation of soil profile at depth of 0-200 cm, (b) Analysis of soil properties in the laboratory (c) Analysis and interpretation of obtained data. From the data obtained from soil profile descriptions and analyzes, it is known that there are three layers of soil with symbols of Ap , Bw and Bt. At soil with texture of clay loam, the first horizon with of 0-5 cm depth, the second horizon of 5-75 cm, and in the third horizon of 75-175 cm depth. Whereas in sandy loam differed in the first horizon is thicker with a depth of 0-30 cm, in the second is 30-100 cm, in the third horizon is 100-180 cm. The structure of both soil have relatively similar structure , i.e. ranging from granular, circular block, angled block. Soil texture in AMR block OA - 29 is ranging from loam to sandy clay (Sandy clay loam), loam, clay silty, until clay. While in the AMR block OA - 40 have soil texture class ranging from sandy loam , sandy clay loam, clay. The soil compaction as shown by Soil Bulk Density (BD) in horizon A is lower than in horizon B in both type of soils. At all depths , the average of BD on clay loam soil is lower than in sandy loam soil. The average BD of clay loam soil in the A horizon (1.3 g cm-3) increased 10 % -20 % in the B horizon (1.4 to 1.5 g cm-3). The average of BD in layer B of sandy loam soil are far more compact than in layer A, where the BD of soil horizon A is 1.2 g cm-3 to horizon B is 1.5 to 1.7 g/cm-3. This may be the cause of discontinuity of soil macropores that could disrupt the water infiltration and root development in a deeper soil layer in oil palm plantation. Th pH value of clay loam soil at a depth of 0-5 cm did not differ with soil pH in the depth of 5-75 cm, on average 4.45; whereas at a depth of 75-175 cm is more alkaline that pH is 4.92. Whereas in sandy loam tend to exhibit different patterns of distribution of soil pH than in clay loam, where the average pH tends to decrease with increasing soil depth, at a depth of 0-30 cm is 5.14; 30-100 cm is 4.98; 100 - 180 cm is 4.75. High level of acidity in the lower layers of soil in a sandy loam soil may inhibit the development of plant roots, so the volume of macro pore and pore continuity will be low too.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2013/305/051311592
Subjects: 500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 551 Geology, hydrology, meteorology
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Ilmu Tanah
Depositing User: Hasbi
Date Deposited: 09 Dec 2013 14:22
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2021 07:48
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/129422
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