Ketahanan Lima Varietas Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Terhadap Infeksi Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

Aini, Sitta Nur (2011) Ketahanan Lima Varietas Tanaman Melon (Cucumis melo L.) Terhadap Infeksi Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Di Indonesia ditanam bermacam-macam tanaman anggota famili labu- labuan (Cucurbitaceae) yang dikonsumsi sebagai sayuran dan buah-buahan. Kendala utama dalam budidaya melon adalah adanya serangan organisme penyebab penyakit, salah satunya disebabkan oleh virus. Di Indonesia virus yang menyerang melon adalah CMV dan WMV, dan secara visual kedua macam penyakit virus tersebut sangat sulit dibedakan. Pengembangan berbagai jenis atau varietas melon hibrida maupun non hibrida, dapat mendukung penganekaragaman produk melon, namun masing – masing varietas melon yang ada belum diketahui ketahanannya terhadap virus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (a) mengetahui ketahanan lima varietas tanaman melon terhadap infeksi TMV, dan (b) untuk mengetahui pengaruh infeksi TMV terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman melon. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Rumah Kaca Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP) Jawa Timur, jalan raya Karangploso Malang, mulai bulan Januari sampai dengan April 2011. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap (RAL). Sebagai perlakuan adalah lima varietas melon, yaitu Sky Rocket (V1), Japonika (V2), Lucky 20 (V3), Glamour (V4), Golden Kinanti (V5). Masing-masing perlakuan diulang lima kali. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah Masa inkubasi, intensitas serangan, tinggi tanaman, jumlah bunga, jumlah buah dan bobot buah. Data dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Apabila ada pengaruh dari perlakuan, analisis dilanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Jujur (uji BNJ) pada taraf 5%. Gejala serangan TMV pada varietas Sky rocket, Japonika, Lucky 20. Golden Kinanti dan Glamour adalah mosaik, klorosis dan malformasi (daun menggulung keatas). Masa inkubasi virus TMV pada tanaman melon varietas Lucky 20 adalah 20,60 hari, nyata lebih lama dibandingkan dengan masa inkubasi virus TMV pada varietas Sky Rocket 14,20 hari, varietas Japonika 15,20 hari, varietas Golden Kinanti 14,80 hari, dan varietas Glamour 15,40 hari. Intensitas serangan virus TMV yang terjadi pada varietas Japonika (3,59 %), varietas Sky Rocket (3,51%), varietas Glamour (3,35%) dan varietas Golden Kinanti (3,27%) berbeda nyata dengan varietas Lucky 20 (1,15 %). Tinggi tanaman varietas Lucky 20 nyata lebih tinggi (45,77 cm) dan Golden Kinanti tinggi tanamannya lebih rendah (26,65 cm). Perbedaan tinggi tanaman melon diduga disebabkan oleh adanya infeksi TMV. Jumlah bunga tanaman melon pada varietas Lucky 20 (6,34) nyata lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah bunga varietas Sky Rocket (5,60), varietas Japonika (3,86), varietas Golden Kinanti (3,31) dan varietas Glamour (2,98). TMV dapat menurunkan produksi tanaman (jumlah buah dan bobot buah). Varietas Lucky 20 rata-rata menghasilkan buah 5,10 buah, nyata lebih tinggi dari pada varietas Sky Rocket 3,45 buah, varietas Japonika 3,67 buah, varietas Golden Kinanti (2,94 buah) dan varietas Glamour 2,99 buah. Infeksi TMV juga mempengaruhi bobot buah, terlihat pada varietas Lucky 20 (5,16 gram), sedang rerata terendah terdapat pada varietas Golden Kinanti (2,18 gram). Berdasarkan berbagai variabel pengamatan pada lima varietas tanaman melon yang diuji menunjukkan bahwa varietas Lucky 20 lebih tahan dibandingkan varietas Sky Rocket, Japonika, Golden Kinanti, dan Glamour. Infeksi TMV menurunkan pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman melon. Varietas Golden Kinanti dan Glamour berproduksi lebih rendah dibandingkan varietas Sky Rocket, Japonika, dan Lucky 20.

English Abstract

n Indonesia there are several kinds of pumpkin family (Cucurbitae) planted and consumed as vegetables and fruits. Main obstacle in planting melon is the attack of disease cause organism, one of them is caused by viruses. In Indonesia, virus attacked melon are CMV and WMV, and visually both viral disease is quite difficult to tell the difference from one another. Development of many kinds in hybrid or non-hybrid melon variety might support diversity of melon product, however each existing melon variety is not yet known for its resistance toward virus. This experiment has the objective to: (a) found out the resistance of five melon variety toward TMV infection, and (b) to found out the effect of TMV infection toward growth and production of melon. This study is conducted in glass house of Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP – Office of Agricultural Technology Review) East Java, at Karangploso, Malang, started from January until April 2011. Experiment conducted through trials, using complete random design (RAL). Five variety of melon i.e Sky Rocket (V1), Japonica (V2), Lucky 20 (V3), Golden Kinanti (V4), Glamour (V5) were used as treatment. Each treatment was repeated five times. Data collected are incubation time, attack intensity, plant height, average flower number, average fruit number and fruit weight. Data analyzed using multi variety analysis in confidence interval 5%. If there were effect obtained from the treatment, analysis would be followed with BNJ test in 5% rate. The symptoms on Sky Rocket, Japonica, Lucky 20, Golden Kinanti and Glamour in general showed mosaic, clorosis, and malformation (leaf rolling upward). The TMV virus incubation period Lucky 20 variety was 20,60 days which was significantly longer than the incubation period Sky Rocket variety 14,20 days, Japonica variety 15,20 days, Golden Kinanti variety 14,80 days and Glamour variety 15,40 days. The intensity of TMV attack on Lucky 20 variety (1,15%) was significantly different with Japonica (3,59%), Sky Rocket (3,51%), Glamour (3,35%) and Golden Kinanti variety (3,27%). The plant height of Lucky 20 variety was significantly highest than the other varities. The difference in melon plant’s height had been suspected to be caused by TMV infection. The average flower number of Lucky 20 was 6,34, which was significantly different with Sky Rocket 5,06, Japonica 3,86, Golden Kinanti 3,31, and Glamour variety 2,98. TMV could decrease plant’s production (average fruit number and fruit weight). The average fruit number of Lucky 20 was 5,10 fruit which was significantly different with Sky Rocket 3,45 fruit, Japonica 3,67 fruit, Golden Kinanti 2,94 fruit and Glamour variety 2,99 fruit. TMV virus infection also affected the fruit weight. The highest fruit weight obtained from Lucky 20 variety (5,16 gram) and the lowest fruit weight obtained from Golden Kinanti (2,18 gram). Based on all observation variables toward five varieties of melon tested in this study, it can be concluded that Lucky 20 variety was more resistant of TMV virus than Sky Rocket, Japonica, Golden Kinanti and Glamour variety. TMV infection might reduce growth and production of melon plants. Golden Kinanti and Glamour had lower production than Sky Rocket, Japonica and Lucky 20 variety.

Other obstract

-

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2011/185/051103801
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Unnamed user with email heriprayitno@ub.ac.id
Date Deposited: 07 Mar 2012 10:05
Last Modified: 19 Apr 2022 07:23
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/128692
[thumbnail of 051103801.pdf]
Preview
Text
051103801.pdf

Download (2MB) | Preview

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item