Pengaruh Pemberian Air Dan Dosis Nitrogen Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Tanaman Pegagan (Centella Asiatica L.Urb)

Derantika, Clarista (2018) Pengaruh Pemberian Air Dan Dosis Nitrogen Terhadap Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Tanaman Pegagan (Centella Asiatica L.Urb). Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Pegagan (Centella asiatica L. Urb) ialah salah satu jenis tanaman yang berkhasiat sebagai obat. Pada bagian batang dan daunnya mengandung zat kimia salah satunya ialah asiaticosida yang bermanfaat untuk penyembuhan luka dan antilepra. Tanaman pegagan termasuk dalam 50 jenis tanaman obat utama, kebutuhannya mencapai 126 ton per tahun, sedangkan produksinya hanya mencapai 60 – 80 ton per tahun. Pada musim kemarau, produksi pegagan hanya mencapai 48 – 56 ton per ha. Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan produksi pegagan ialah dengan memperhatikan kebutuhan air dan unsur hara. Tanaman pegagan cenderung tumbuh subur pada kondisi kecukupan air dan kurang mampu beradaptasi terhadap kondisi tekanan kekeringan yang relatif tingi. Pegagan ialah tanaman yang dipanen bagian vegetatif seperti batang dan daun. Nitrogen merupakan unsur hara utama bagi pertumbuhan tanaman, yang pada umumnya sangat diperlukan untuk pembentukan bagian – bagian vegetatif tanaman, seperti daun, batang dan akar. Pemberian air dan dosis pupuk nitrogen yang sesuai dapat meningkatkan hasil yang optimal pada tanaman pegagan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari dan mengetahui interaksi pemberian air dan dosis pupuk nitrogen yang tepat pada pertumbuhan, hasil dan kualitas tanaman pegagan. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Maret - Mei 2018 di Venus Orchid, Dau Malang. Alat yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini diantaranya ialah polibag, gelas ukur, ember, alat tulis, penggaris, timbangan analitik, kamera, oven dan papan fiber plastik. Sedangkan bahan yang digunakan antara lain bibit pegagan, tanah, pupuk kandang, pupuk urea, Kcl dan SP36. Metode penelitian disusun menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok (RAK) faktorial yang terdiri dari dua faktor dan diulang sebanyak tiga kali. Faktor pertama adalah pemberian air berdasarkan persentase kapasitas lapang, diantaranya A1 = 100 % kapasitas lapang ; A2 = 80 % kapasitas lapang ; A3 = 60 % kapasitas lapang. Faktor kedua adalah dosis unsur nitrogen diantaranya P0 = tanpa pupuk nitrogen ; P1 = 69 kg ha-1 ; P2 = 138 kg ha-1. Setiap unit percobaan terdiri dari 10 tanaman, sehingga total dibutuhkan 270 tanaman pegagan. Pengamatan non destruktif dilakukan dengan interval 1 MST. Parameter pengamatan non-destruktif diantaranya ialah, panjang tankai daun (cm), jumlah daun (helai), jumlah anakan dan luas daun total (cm2). Sedangkan pengamatan destruktif dilakukan pada saat panen (8 MST) dengan parameter, bobot segar total panen, bobot kering total panen dan asiaticosida. Data hasil pengamatan dianalisis dengan analisis ragam (uji F) dengan taraf kesalahan 5 %. Dan dilakukan uji lanjut menggunakan BNT dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95 %. Terdapat interaksi antara pemberian air dan dosis pupuk nitrogen terhadap pertumbuhan jumlah daun, jumlah anakan per rumpun dan kandungan asiaticosida (%). Perlakuan pemberian air 100% kapasitas lapang, pupuk nitrogen 138 g.tan-1 menghasilkan jumlah daun dan jumlah anakan lebih tinggi. Sedangkan interaksi ii pemberian air sebesar 60% kapasitas lapang dengan perlakuan tanpa pupuk meningkatkan kandungan asiaticosida (%). Perlakuan pemberian air 100% kapasitas lapang secara terpisah menghasilkan panjang tangkai, luas daun, bobot segar total tanaman dan bobot kering total tanaman yang lebih tinggi. Perlakuan pupuk 138 g.tan-1 secara terpisah menghasilkan panjang tangkai, luas daun, bobot segar total tanaman dan bobot kering total tanaman yang lebih tinggi..

English Abstract

Pennywort (Centella asiatica L. Urb) is one of the medicinal plants. In the stems and leaves contain chemicals one of which is a useful asiaticosida for wound healing and antilepra. Pennywort plant is included in 50 types of main medicinal plants, the need to reach 126 tons per year, while the production only reaches 60-80 tons per year. In the dry season, production of pegagan only reaches 48 - 56 tons per ha. One effort to increase the production of pegagan is to pay attention to the needs of water and nutrients. Pegagan plants tend to flourish in water sufficiency conditions and are less able to adapt to relatively high drought stress conditions. Centella asiatica is a plant that is harvested vegetative parts such as stems and leaves. Nitrogen is a major nutrient for plant growth, which is generally necessary for the formation of vegetative parts of plants, such as leaves, stems and roots. Provision of water and the appropriate dosage of nitrogen fertilizer can improve the optimal yield on the plant of pegagan. This study aims to determine and get a combination of water supply and dosage of proper urea fertilizer on the growth and yield of Centella asian plants. The study was conducted in March - May 2018 at Venus Orchid, Dau Malang. The tools used in this research are polybag, measuring cup, bucket, stationery, ruler, analytical scales, camera, oven and plastic fiber board. While the materials used include pennywort seeds, soil, manure, urea fertilizer, Kcl and SP36. The research method was arranged using factorial randomized block design (RAK) consisting of two factors and repeated three times. The first factor is water supply based on percentage of field capacity, such as A1 = 100% field capacity; A2 = 80% field capacity; A3 = 60% field capacity. The second factor is the dose of nitrogen elements such as P0 = without nitrogen fertilizer; P1 = 69 kg ha-1; P2 = 138 kg ha-1. Each experimental unit consists of 10 plants, so a total of 270 plants is needed. Non destructive observation was done at 1 MST interval. Non-destructive observation parameters include, plant length (cm), number of leaves (strands), number of tillers and leaf area (cm2). While destructive observation was done at harvest time (8 MST) with parameter, fresh weight of plant, plant biomass and asiaticosida. Data of observation result were analyzed by variance analysis (F test) with 5% error level. And further test using BNT with 95% confidence level. There is no interaction between the water supply and dosage of nitrogen fertilizer on the growth of the number of leaves, number of tillers per polybag and the percentage content of asiaticosida. Water treatment 100% field capacity, 0.69 g.tan-1 nitrogen fertilizer resulted in higher number of leaf and number of tillers. While the lowest percentage of asiaticosida content is the interaction of water treatment giving 100% field capacity with no nitrogen fertilizer. The water treatment treatment of 100% of the field capacity separately results in stalk length, leaf area, total fresh weight of the plant and higher total dry weight of the plant. The fertilizer treatment of 0.69 g.tan-1 separately resulted in stalk length, leaf area, total fresh weight of plant and total dry weight of higher plants.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/498/051809474
Uncontrolled Keywords: Air, Nitrogen, Pegagan
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.5 Cultivation and harvesting > 631.58 Special methods of cultivation > 631.587 Irrigation / Sprinkler irrigation
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 05 Oct 2018 01:51
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2021 11:33
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/12365
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