Studi Stabilitas Agregat Dan Makroporositas Tanah Pada Berbagai Sistem Penggunaan Lahan Berbasis Agroforestri

Yusa, Yoga Lorensa Putra (2018) Studi Stabilitas Agregat Dan Makroporositas Tanah Pada Berbagai Sistem Penggunaan Lahan Berbasis Agroforestri. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Degradasi lahan merupakan penurunan kemampuan lahan dalam menunjang produktivitasnya akibat adanya kerusakan fisik, kimia dan biologi, meningkatnya kebutuhan lahan pertanian dan maraknya konversi pertanian menyebabkan terjadinya degradasi lingkungan terutama penurunan kualitas tanah. Agroforestri dengan perbedaan sistem penggunaan dan pengelolaan lahan diduga akan berpengaruh positif terhadap karateristik fisik, kimia, dan biologi tanah. Karakteristik fisik meliputi stabilitas agregat dan makroporositas tanah. Tanah yang berstruktur granular akan menopang pertumbuhan tanaman karena perakaran mudah menembus tanah sehingga penyerapan air dan unsur hara dapat terpenuhi. Apabila struktur mengalami kerusakan, maka akan berdampak pada jumlah pori yang menurun dan tanah menjadi padat. Stabilitas agregat tanah dipengaruhi oleh bahan organik dan aktivitas organisme tanah. Penelitian ini fokus pada bagaimana stabilitas agregat tanah dan makroporositas tanah pada berbagai penggunaan lahan berbasis agroforestri. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Juli-September 2017, pengambilan contoh tanah dilakukan di Kawasan UB Forest yang secara administratif terletak di Desa Tawangargo, Donowarih, dan Desa Ngenep, Kecamatan Karangploso Kabupaten Malang. Penentuan plot pengamatan berdasarkan sistem penggunaan lahan berbasis agroforestri (AF), terdapat 5 plot dengan 3 kali ulangan yang dibedakan atas penggunaan lahan berbasis AF pinus+kopi (PK) pinus+semusim (PS) mahoni+kopi (MK) mahoni+semusim (MS) dan tanaman semusim (TS) dengan luas plot 20x20 m2. Pengambilan contoh tanah terbagi menjadi tanah terganggu dan tidak terganggu yang diambil pada kedalaman (1) 0-10 cm, (2) 10-20 cm, (3) 20-30 cm, dan (4) 30-50 cm. Pengambilan contoh tanah terganggu dilakukan dengan menggunakan blok besi 20x20x10cm, sedangkan tanah tidak terganggu diambil menggunakan pisau lapangan. Contoh tanah terganggu digunakan untuk analisis fisika yaitu bobot isi, bobot jenis, porositas total, tekstur tanah, dan kimia khususnya C-organik tanah, sedangkan tanah tidak terganggu digunakan untuk analisis stabilitas agregat. Sedangkan untuk pengukuran makroporositas tanah dilakukan dengan blok besi ukuran 100x50x50cm dengan metode pewarnaan methylene blue. Pada penelitian ini diperoleh nilai bobot isi tertinggi pada plot TS 0,86 g cm-3, terendah pada plot AF PK dengan 0,62 g cm-3, nilai bobot isi ini tidak berbeda dengan yang diperoleh pada plot AF PS 0,64 g cm-3. Porositas total tertinggi pada plot AF PK sebesar 69,92% dan terendah pada plot TS 62,22%. Stabilitas agregat (DMR) pada keseluruhan penggunaan lahan termasuk sangat stabil sekali karena >2mm, kemudian sebaran pori makro (makroporositas) pada agroforestri lebih dalam (>20 cm) dibandingkan dengan tanaman semusim (<20 cm). Kemudian hubungan antara C-organik tanah dengan porositas total tanah (r= 0,99) dengan nilai koefisien determinasi (R2) C-organik tanah mempengaruhi porositas total tanah sebesar 98,43% dan 1,57% dipengarui faktor lain. Hasil korelasi antara C-organik tanah dengan makroporositas tanah (r= 0,88) dengan nilai koefisien determinasi (R2) C-organik tanah mempengaruhi makroporositas tanah sebesar 78,06% dan 21,94% dipengaruhi faktor lain. Berdasarkan hasil korelasi C-organik tanah tidak memiliki hubungan yang erat ii terhadap stabilitas agregat (r=-0,53) serta stabilitas agregat juga tidak berhubungan terhadap makroporositas tanah (r=-0,16). Secara umum, ditinjau dari berbagai parameter penelitian. Kawasan penggunaan lahan berbasis agroforestri lebih baik dibandingkan dengan tanaman semusim.

English Abstract

Land degradation is a decrease the ability of land to support productivity due to physical damage, chemical and biological characteristics such as erosion, salination and low organic matter. The need for agricultural land is increased, and with the increased widespread conversion of agricultural land, caused environmental degradation, especially decreased of soil quality or soil health. Agroforestry with different systems of land use and management is expected to positive affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the soil, physical characteristics such as aggregate stability and soil macroporosity. Good structured (granular) soils will support optimal plant growth, because plant roots penetrated the soil therefore take water absorption and nutrient sufficiently. If the soil structure is damaged, it will affect the decreased the amount soil pore dan soil compaction. Soil structure is influenced by quality of soil organic matter and soil organism activity. This research focuses on how soil aggregate stability and soil macroporosity on various agroforestry and plant-based land uses and annual crops. The research was conducted in July-September 2017, the sampling of the land was conducted in UB Forest area which is located in Tawangargo, Donowarih, and Ngenep Villages, Karangploso Subdistrict, Malang Regency. In this study the determination of observation plots based on agroforestry based land use system. There are 5 observation plots with 3 replications included agroforestry based land use pine+coffee (AF PC), pine+annual crops (AF PA), mahogany + coffee (AF MC), mahogany + crops (AF MC) and annual crops (AC). The size of the plot is 20x20 m2. Soil samples is divided into disturbed and undisturbed soils at depths (1) 0-10 cm, (2) 10-20 cm, (3) 20-30 cm, and (4) 30-50 cm. Disturbed soil sampled was performed used 20x20x10cm iron block, while uninterrupted soil was taken used a field blade. Disturbed soil samples are used for physics analysis bulk density, total porosity, soil texture, and chemical, especially soil C-organic, while uninterrupted soil is used for aggregate stability analysis. The measurement of soil macroporosity with iron block size 100x50x50cm with methylene blue stained method. In this research obtained the result of the highest of bulk density on AC 0.86 g cm-3, the lowest at AF PC 0.64 g cm-3, where value of the contents was not different from that obtained in the AF PAC 0.62 g cm-3. The highest total porosity in AF PC was 69,92% and the lowest at AC 62.22%. Aggregate stability (DMR) in overall land use is very stable >2mm, then macropore distribution (macroporosity) in deeper agroforestry (> 20 cm) compared to annual crops (<20 cm). Then the relationship between soil C-organic soil with total soil porosity (r = 0.99) with coefficient determination value (R2) C-organic soil affects the total soil porosity of 98.43% and 1.57% is influenced by other factors. The correlation of between soil C-organic soil with soil macroporosity (r = 0.88) with coefficient determination value (R2) C-organic soil affect the soil macroporosity equal to 78.06% and 21.94% influenced by other factor. Based on the result of soil C-organic did not have a close correlation to aggregate stability (r = -0.53) and aggregate stability also to soil macroporosity (r = -0.16). Overall, in terms of various research parameters. Agroforestry based land use areas are better than annual crops.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/276/051804313
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.4 Soil science > 631.47 Soil and land-use surveys
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 26 Jun 2018 02:33
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2021 11:26
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/11568
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