Karakteristik Lahan Sentra Tembakau (Nicotiana Tabaccum L.) Ditinjau Dari Fisiografi Lahan Di Kabupaten Temanggung Jawa Tengah

Jaya, Aulia Rachman (2018) Karakteristik Lahan Sentra Tembakau (Nicotiana Tabaccum L.) Ditinjau Dari Fisiografi Lahan Di Kabupaten Temanggung Jawa Tengah. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Abstract

Kabupaten Temanggung merupakan salah satu daerah di Indonesia yang mempunyai keunggulan dalam bidang pertanian khususnya tanaman tembakau. Tembakau temanggung terkenal dengan kadar nikotinnya yang tinggi sekitar 5-8 % dan aroma yang khas untuk pembuatan rokok kretek. Kemloko merupakan varietas lokal yang banyak ditanam oleh petani, karena bila ditanam di kawasan pegunungan dan lingkungan yang sesuai dapat menghasilkan mutu yang sangat tinggi. Sentra tembakau yang ada di Kabupaten Temanggung adalah Kidulan, Paksi, Lamuk, Lamsi, Tionggang, Tualo, dan Swanbin. Setiap sentra tembakau memiliki ciri dan karakteristik lahan tersendiri. Perbedaan karakteristik lahan ini yang mengakibatkan adanya perbedaan produksi dan mutu tembakau Temanggung. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi sebaran produksi dan mutu tembakau varietas Kemloko dan mengkaji faktor fisiografi lahan yang berpengaruh terhadap produksi dan mutu tembakau. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Agustus - Oktober 2016 di lahan petani sentra produksi tembakau di lereng Gunung Sumbing, Gunung Sindoro, dan Gunung Prau Kabupaten Temanggung, Jawa Tengah. Analisa nikotin dilakukan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pemanis dan Serat (BALITTAS) Malang. Analisa spasial dilakukan di Laboratorium Pedologi dan Sistem Informasi Sumberdaya Lahan, Jurusan Tanah, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. Variabel pengamatan fisiografi lahan meliputi ketinggian tempat, kemiringan lahan, aspek lereng, dan posisi lereng. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode survei grid bebas dengan titik pengamatan sebanyak 72 titik berdasarkan posisi lereng. Wawancara petani dilakukan untuk mencari data produksi dan mutu serta cara budidaya tembakau, sedangkan pengamatan fisiografi lahan dilakukan melalui analisa spasial dan validasi di lapangan. Analisa data menggunakan uji korelasi dan regresi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa produksi tertinggi di sentra Lamuk sebesar 918,3 kg.ha-1, produksi terendah di sentra Tualo sebesar 75 kg.ha-1. Berdasarkan posisi lereng, rata-rata produksi tertinggi terdapat di bagian lereng sebesar 764,67 kg.ha-1 dan terendah di bagian punggungan sebesar 585 kg.ha-1. Rata-rata indeks mutu tertinggi terdapat di bagian lembah sebesar 56,2 dan terendah di bagian lereng sebesar 40. Kadar nikotin tertinggi terdapat di sentra Kidulan sebesar 4,2% dan terendah di sentra Tualo sebesar 1,3%. Ketinggian tempat lokasi penanaman berada pada 827-1385 mdpl. Hasil analisa korelasi antara fisiografi lahan (ketinggian, kemiringan lahan, dan arah lereng) dengan produksi, Indeks Mutu, dan Indeks Tanaman menunjukkan nilai korelasi yang sangat lemah. Curah hujan yang tinggi pada masa panen diduga menjadi penyebab nilai korelasi yang sangat lemah karena curah hujan tinggi membuat produksi dan mutu tembakau menjadi lebih rendah. Tidak adanya bulan kering membuat daun tembakau menjadi rusak dan menurunkan kualitas dan kuantitas daun tembakau.

English Abstract

Temanggung Regency is one of the areas in Indonesia that has advantages in the field of agriculture, especially tobacco. Temanggung tobacco is known for its high nicotine levels of about 5-8% and a distinctive aroma for the manufacture of clove cigarettes. Kemloko is a local variety that is widely grown by farmers, because if planted in the mountainous and the appropriate environment can produce a very high quality. Tobacco centers in Temanggung Regency are Kidulan, Paksi, Lamuk, Lamsi, Tionggang, and Swanbin. Each tobacco center has its own land characteristics. Differences characteristic of this land which resulted in the difference of production and quality of tobacco Temanggung. This study aims to identify the distribution of Kemloko variety and production of tobacco varieties and to examine the factors of land physiography that affect tobacco production and quality. The research was conducted in August - October 2016 at farmer land of tobacco production center at the slopes of Mount Sumbing, Mount Sindoro, and Mount Prau of Temanggung Regency, Central Java. Nicotine analysis was conducted at Indonesian Research Institute Sweetener and Fibre Crops (BALITTAS) Malang. Spatial analysis is done in the Laboratory of Pedology and Land Resources Information System, Soil Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang. Land physiographic observation variables include altitude, slope, slope aspect, and slope position. The research method used is survey method with observation point as much 72 point based on slope position. Farmer interviews were conducted to look for data production and quality as well ways of tobacco cultivation, while the observation of land physiography was done through spatial analysis and validation in the field. Data was analysed using correlation and regression test. The results showed that the highest yield was found in Lamuk center of 918.3 kg.ha-1, the lowest yield in Tualo center of 75 kg.ha-1. Based on the slope position, the highest yield rate was at the slopes 764.67 kg.ha-1 and the lowest yield was on the ridge 585 kg.ha-1. The highest quality index of tobacco was found in the valleys of 56.2 and the lowest on the slopes by 40. The highest, tobacco nicotine content 4,2% was in the Kidulan center and the lowest at that Tualo center 1,3%. The altitude of the planting site is located at 827-1385 meter above sea level. The result of correlation analysis between land physiography (altitude, slopes, and slope direction) and yield, Quality Index, and Crop Index showed very weak correlation value. High rainfall during harvest time was thought to be the cause of very weak correlation value because high rainfall reduced the yield and quality of tobacco. The absence of dry months damaged tobacco leaves and degrades tobacco quality.

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2018/97/051802183
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 633 Field and plantation crops > 633.7 Alkaloidal crops > 633.71 Tobacco
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
Date Deposited: 22 May 2018 01:58
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2021 03:20
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/10784
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