BKG

Cahyani, Aryati (2017) Pengaruh Suhu terhadap Biologi Tungau Predator Blattisocius keegani dan Cheyletus eruditus. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Pengendalian hama tungau umumnya menggunakan akarisida. Penggunaan akarisida yang berlebihan mengakibatkan residu dan resistensi hama. Upaya untuk mengurangi penggunaan akarisida yaitu dengan pemanfaatan musuh alami seperti tungau predator. Famili Phytoseiidae merupakan tungau predator yang diperbanyak secara massal. Tungau predator dari famili lain yang berpotensi untuk pengendalian secara biologis yaitu Blattisocius keegani dari famili Ascidae dan Cheyletus eruditus dari famili Cheyletidae. Kedua tungau predator tersebut digunakan untuk mengendalikan hama tungau pada produk simpanan. Masalah yang sering terjadi dilapang adalah ketersedian tungau predator pada waktu yang tepat untuk mengendalikan hama. Ketersedian tungau predator dipengaruhi oleh cara pemeliharaan seperti ketersediaan mangsa, kondisi suhu, dan kelembapan. Perubahan suhu dapat mempengaruhi biologi tungau predator. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya kajian untuk mengetahui pengaruh berbagai suhu terhadap pertumbuhan dan perkembangan tungau B. keegani dan C. eruditus. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Desember 2016 sampai Juni 2017 di Laboratorium Hama, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya. Tungau predator dan tungau mangsa diperoleh dari koleksi tungau di Laboratorium Hama. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada arena percobaan terdiri dari cawan Petri berukuran sedang, kemudian pada bagian dalam diletakkan air, busa, dan cawan Petri berukuran kecil. Penelitian ini terdiri dari tiga perlakuan suhu yaitu suhu 20, 25, dan 30°C. Penelitian biologi tungau B. keegani dan C. eruditus menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan 10 ulangan sehingga didapatkan 60 satuan percobaan. Pengamatan biologi tungau B. keegani dan C. eruditus meliputi lama perkembangan pradewasa, lama hidup imago, dan keperidian. Pengamatan perkembangan pradewasa dilakukan 3 jam sekali dengan mengamati telur hingga menjadi imago. Pengamatan lama hidup imago dilakukan dengan mencatat kematian imago jantan dan betina, serta mencatat masa praoviposisi, oviposisi, dan pascaoviposisi imago betina. Sedangkan pengamatan keperidian dilakukan dengan menghitung dan mencatat jumlah telur yang dihasilkan oleh imago betina. Data lama perkembangan pradewasa, keperidian imago betina dan lama hidup imago dianalisis dengan analisis sidik ragam taraf kesalahan 5%. Apabila antar perlakuan berbeda nyata, maka dilanjutkan dengan Uji Beda Nyata Terkecil pada taraf kesalahan 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rerata perkembangan pradewasa dan siklus hidup berlangsung singkat secara nyata pada suhu 30°C (4,01 dan 5,11 hari) dibandingkan suhu 20°C (9,38 dan 12,08 hari) dan 25°C (8,19 dan 9,59 hari). Rerata keperidian tungau B. keegani pada suhu 20, 25, dan 30°C secara berurutan yaitu 47,10, 44,80, dan 39,40 butir telur. Sedangkan rerata lama hidup imago betina dan jantan pada suhu 20°C berlangsung lebih lama secara nyata (34,10 dan 27,40 hari) daripada suhu 25°C (23,60 dan 21,40 hari) dan 30°C (20,01 dan 18,00 hari). Dari hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa dengan meningkatnya suhu maka perkembangan pradewasa, siklus hidup, dan lama hidup imago tungau B. keegani berlangsung singkat, dan keperidian meningkat. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian biologi tungau C. eruditus menunjukkan bahwa rerata perkembangan pradewasa dan siklus hidup pada suhu 20°C ii berlangsung lama secara nyata (19,12 dan 21,92 hari) daripada suhu 25°C (13,10 dan 16,60 hari) dan 30°C (11,20 dan 14,02 hari). Rerata keperidian tungau C. eruditus pada suhu 20, 25, dan 30°C secara berurutan yaitu 78,40, 97,90, dan 101,40 butir telur. Rerata lama hidup imago betina pada 20 dan 25°C berlangsung selama 19,90 hari dan pada suhu 30°C berlangsung selama 21,40 hari. Sedangkan rerata lama hidup imago jantan pada suhu 20°C berlangsung lebih lama secara nyata (22,20 hari) dibandingkan dengan suhu 25°C (13,00 hari) dan 30°C (14,80 hari). Hal tersebut dikarenakan tungau C. eruditus memiliki sifat kanibal sehingga mempengaruhi rerata lama hidup imago jantan dan betina. Seiring dengan meningkatnya suhu maka perkembangan pradewasa dan siklus hidup tungau C. eruditus berlangsung lebih singkat.

English Abstract

Common method to control mite pest is using acaricide. Excessive application of acaricide may lead to toxic residue and pest resistance. Several efforts are establish to reduce acaricide application which one of them is utilizes mite predators. Phytoseiidae family is predatory mite has been mass reared. Common predatory mites produced are from the. Predatory mite from other family that have potential as natural mite control are Blattisocius keegani from Ascidae and Cheyletus eruditus from Cheyletidae.Both predatory mite are used to control mite pest in storage producs. There are several obstacles often happens in field, which is availablity of predatory mite in preferable time to control pest. Mite predators availability influenced by rearing method such as prey availability, temperature, and humidity. Temperature changes may affect biology of predatory mite. Thus, it is needed in depth research to know influence of temperatures on growth and development of B. keegani and C. eruditus mites. The research was conducted in December 2016 until June 2017 in Laboratory of Pest, Department of Pest and Disease Plant, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University. Predatory mites and prey mites were obtained from mites collection in the Laboratory of Pest. Research conducted in the experimental arena consist of medium Petri dish filled with water, foam, and small Petri dish. This research divided into three temperature treatments, which were 20, 25, and 30°C. Biological aspects experiment of B. keegani and C. eruditus at various temperatures was used Completely Randomized Design with 10 repetitions, thus there were 60 units of experiment. Biological observations of mites B. keegani and C. eruditus include preadult development, adult life span, and female fecundity. Observation of preadult development was done every 3 hours by observe the eggs until it become an adult. Adult life span observation was done by record the mortality of male and female adult, also the time pre-oviposition, oviposition, and post-oviposition of female adult. While the fecundity observation was done by count and record the number of eggs laid by female adult. The data of pre adult development, fecundity of female adult and adult mite life span were analyzed by Analysis of variance with 5% error rate. If there was a significantly different between treatments, the data were analysed with Least Significant Difference Test at level 5% error. The results showed average development of preadult and adult life span shortest in temperature 30°C than 20°C and 25°C with respectetive value 4,01 and 5,11 days, 9,38 and 12,08 days, 8,19 and 9.59 days. Average fecundity of mite B. keegani were 47,10, 44,80, and 39,40 eggs laid from 20, 25, 30°C temperature. However average life span of male and female adult were longer in temperature 20°C than 25°C and 30°C with respectively 27,40 and 34,10 days, 21,40 and 23,60 days, 18,00 and 20,01 days. These results indicate that temperature increasement had directly propotional with femail fecundity and shorten pre adult development, life cycle, and adult life span of B. keegani mite. The biology results showed average C. eruditus mite preadult development and life cycle in temperature 20°C took longer than in temperature 25°C and 30°C with respective value 19,12 and 21,92 days, 13,10 and 16,60 days, 11,20 and 14,02 days. Average fecundity of female adult were 78,40, 97,90, and 101,40 eggs in temperature 20, 25, and 30° C. Average female adult iv lifespan was 19,90 days except in temperature 30°C was longer than other treatment which was 21,40 days. However average male adult lifespan in temperature 20°C was significantly longer than 25 and 30°C which value were 22,20, 13,00, and 14,80 days. It is cause by canibalism behaviour of C. eruditus mite therefore effect the average lifespan of adult male and female. Also, temperature increase was shorten preadult development and life cycle of C. eruditus mite.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2017/979/051712279
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests > 632.654 2 Animal pests (Mites)
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Budi Wahyono
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/7399
Text
Aryati Cahyani.pdf

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