BKG

Balqies, Sayyida Camilla (2017) Pengaruh Aplikasi Zeolit Dan Kompos Terhadap Retensi Air, Kapasitas Tukar Kation, Dan Pertumbuhan Tanaman Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Pada Ultisol. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Ultisol merupakan salah satu jenis tanah di Indonesia yang memiliki daerah sebaran cukup luas mencapai 25% (45.794.000 ha) dari total luas daratan Indonesia. Namun, jenis tanah yang banyak ditemukan di Indonesia ini justru memiliki kendala kesuburan yang juga banyak. Karakteristik Ultisol lahan Ecopark LIPI Cibinong adalah pH rendah yakni 5,84, kapasitas tukar kation rendah yakni 11,56 cmol kg-1, C-organik rendah yakni 1,66%, dan nilai kejenuhan basa 20,73%. Sehingga karakteristik tanah tersebut menjadi kendala budidaya tanaman sorgum. Oleh sebab itu, diperlukan beberapa perbaikan sifat fisik dan kimia tanah sehingga pemanfaatannya optimal. Maka dipilih bahan pembenah tanah zeolit dan kompos untuk menangani masalah tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menunjukkan pengaruh dan dosis terbaik dari zeolit dan kompos terhadap retensi air, kapasitas tukar kation, dan pertumbuhan tanaman sorgum pada Ultisol. Penelitian terdiri dari 2 unit yaitu dengan menggunakan tanaman indikator berupa tanaman sorgum Varietas Super 2 dan tanah tanpa tanaman (tanah inkubasi). Kegiatan penelitian dilakukan di Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI) Cibinong pada bulan Februari sampai Mei 2017. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RALF) dengan 2 faktor, faktor pertama yakni dosis zeolit dengan 5 taraf terdiri dari Z0 (tanpa zeolit), Z1 (20 t ha-1), Z2 (40 t ha-1), Z3 (60 t ha-1), Z4 (80 t ha-1) dan faktor kedua yakni variasi dosis pemberian kompos dengan 3 taraf terdiri dari K0 (tanpa kompos), K1 (kompos 3%), K2 (kompos 6%) dan masing-masing terdiri dari 3 ulangan. Parameter yang diamati yaitu berat isi, porositas, retensi air, C-Organik, kapasitas tukar kation, pH, tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, berat basah dan kering brangkasan, serta berat basah dan kering akar. Analisis data dan uji korelasi dilakukan menggunakan Software Genstat dan diuji lanjut Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) taraf 5%. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh kedua variabel dilanjukan dengan uji regresi menggunakan Software Ms. Excel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perlakuan zeolit dan kompos mampu meningkatkan kapasitas tukar kation mencapai 17,46 cmol kg-1 dan terjadi peningkatan retensi air dalam bentuk air tersedia pada perlakuan zeolit mencapai 13,7% dan perlakuan kompos mencapai 13,76% namun tidak terdapat interaksi antar perlakuan zeolit dan kompos terhadap retensi air. Peningkatan retensi air diakibatkan terjadinya peningkatan C-Organik dan porositas serta penurunan berat isi tanah. Adanya pengaruh positif terhadap sifat fisik dan kimia tanah maka juga mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman hingga 39,65% pada tinggi tanaman, 20% pada jumlah daun, 237,69% pada berat kering brangkasan, dan 546,02% pada berat kering akar. Kombinasi zeolit dan kompos pada dosis tertinggi yakni perlakuan Z4K2 (80 t ha-1 zeolit + kompos 6%) secara umum memberikan pengaruh terbaik terhadap kapasitas tukar kation, retensi air, dan pertumbuhan tanaman sorgum.

English Abstract

Ultisols are among the most widely-spread soils in Indonesia as it covers 25% (45.794.000 ha) of Indonesia’s land distribution area. Characteristics of Ultisol in Ecopark LIPI Cibinong is a low pH which is 5,84, low cation exchange capacity which is 11,56 cmol kg-1, low C-organic which is 1,66%, and the saturation value of base is 20,73%. So as to constrain cultivation of sorghum plants. Therefore, it needs some improvement of soil physical and chemical properties so that can optimize the utilization. Two soil ameliorants were tested to improve Ultisols’ chemical and physical properties are zeolite and compost. This research aims to demonstrate the effect and the best dosage of zeolite and compost on Ultisols’ water retention, cation exchange capacity, and growth of sorghum on Ultisols. This research consisted of two units, namely, plant indicator (using Sorghum) and incubated soil. The research was conducted in Cibinong Science Center, from February up to May, 2017. Experiment in this research was conducted with CRFD (Completely Randomized Factorial Design), using two factors. The first factor was zeolite dosage, applied in 5 levels, Z0 (without zeolite), Z1 (20 tons ha-1), Z2 (40 tons ha-1), Z3 (60 tons ha-1), Z4 (80 tons ha-1). The second factor was compost dosage, applied in 3 levels, K0 (without compost), K1 (3% of compost), and K2 (6% of compost). Each treatment was in form of combination of the factor levels and was applied in 3 repetitions. Parameters observed in this research were soil bulk density, soil porosity, soil water retension, soil organic carbon, plant height, number of leaves, wet and dry weight of plant, also, wet and dry weight of root. Data analysis and correlation test were executed with Genstat software. Data were further analysed with Duncan Multiple Range Test in 5% significance level. To investigate the influence of the two independent variables, regression analysis were performed with Microsoft Excel. The results showed that zeolite and compost treatment increased the cation exchange capacity to 17,46 cmol kg-1 and there was an increase of water retention in available water at zeolite treatment reached 13,7% and compost treatment reached 13,76%. However the two ameliorants showed no prove of interaction in terms of their effect on water retention. Increase in water retention was due to an increase in C-organic and porosity, also, a decrease in soil bulk density. Improvements in soil physical and chemical properties also promoted plant growth. This led to increasing plant height by 36,95%, number of leaves by 20%, plant dry weight by 237,69%, and root dry weight by 546,02%. The combination of zeolite and compost at the highest dose of Z4K2 treatment (80 t ha-1 zeolite + 6% compost) generally gives the best effect to cation exchange capacity, water retention, and the growth of sorghum plant.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2017/336/051706859
Uncontrolled Keywords: Ultisol, Zeolit, Kompos, Air, Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.4 Soil science > 631.42 Soil fertility, acidity, alkalinity
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Ilmu Tanah
Depositing User: Yusuf Dwi N.
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/4695
Text
Sayyida Camilla Balqies.pdf

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