BKG

Hidayah, Munika Dwi Nurul (2017) Bioaktivitas Fumigan Ekstrak Daun Kelor Moringa oleifera Terhadap Tungau Umbi Rhizoglyphus robini. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Kehilangan produk pertanian di tempat penyimpanan akibat serangan hama dan agens biologis lain mencapai 10-40%. Salah satu organisme pengganggu yang ditemukan di gudang adalah tungau umbi Rhizoglyphus robini Claparède (Acari: Acaridae). Upaya untuk meminimalkan kerusakan akibat serangan tungau umbi R. robini dalam gudang dilakukan dengan cara fumigasi. Bahan nabati yang berpotensi sebagai bahan fumigan adalah daun kelor Moringa oleifera Lamark (Capparales). Daun kelor mengandung minyak atsiri berbahan aktif saponin, polifenol, dan alkaloida. Penelitian pengembangan potensi ekstrak daun kelor (EDK) sebagai fumigan terhadap tungau umbi R. robini pada produk simpanan masih terbatas. Berdasarkan uji pendahuluan, aplikasi fumigan EDK pada konsentrasi 2.100 – 2.500 ppm mampu mematikan dan menghambat perkembangan tungau umbi R. robini. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menguji bioaktivitas fumigan nabati dari EDK pada berbagai konsentrasi, yaitu 2.100, 2.200, 2.300, 2.400 dan 2.500 ppm terhadap persentase mortalitas dan perkembangan biologi tungau umbi R. robini. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Oktober 2016 sampai Februari 2017 di Laboratorium Toksikologi dan Laboratorium Hama, Jurusan Hama dan Penyakit Tumbuhan, Fakultas Pertanian, Universitas Brawijaya. Tungau umbi R. robini diperoleh dari umbi tanaman jahe di kebun yang terletak di Dusun Klakah, Desa Patokpicis, Kecamatan Wajak, Kabupaten Malang. Daun kelor yang digunakan diperoleh dari Desa Gendhing, Probolinggo. Perbanyakan tungau uji dilakukan dalam laboratorium pada suhu 28-30˚C dengan kelembapan nisbi lebih kurang 70%. Pembuatan EDK dilakukan dengan cara memisahkan daun kelor dari tangkainya, kemudian dikeringanginkan selama dua hari dan daun kelor yang telah layu dicacah halus. Cacahan daun kelor diambil sebanyak 10 g, selanjutnya dicampur dengan 180 ml pelarut ethanol 70%. Campuran bahan tersebut di shaker selama 24 jam kemudian disaring menggunakan kertas saring. Filtrat yang diperoleh dipekatkan dengan menggunakan rotary evaporator pada suhu 75 ˚C. Hasil ekstrak yang diperoleh kemudian digunakan sebagai akarisida. Pengujian daya racun akarisida fumigan EDK terhadap tungau umbi R. robini meliputi LC50, LT50, perkembangan pradewasa, siklus hidup, lama hidup imago betina dan jantan, serta keperidian. Pengujian menggunakan lima perlakuan konsentrasi EDK yaitu 2.100, 2.200, 2.300, 2.400 dan 2.500 ppm serta satu kontrol. Masing-masing pegujian diulang sebanyak 20 kali. Penelitian uji daya racun dilakukan pada stoples plastik dengan volume 1 L yang didalamnya terdapat cawan Petri, irisan kentang lokal sebagai pakan tungau uji, dan fumigan EDK. Pembuatan fumigan EDK dilakukan dengan meneteskan EDK sesuai konsentrasi perlakuan tersebut pada secarik kertas saring berukuran 2 x 2 cm, kemudian dikeringanginkan selama ii dua menit. Pengamatan mortalitas LC50 dilakukan 48 jam setelah aplikasi (JSA), mortalitas LT50 dilakukan setiap 24, 48, 72 dan 96 JSA, daya tetas telur diamati lima hari setelah aplikasi, perkembangan pradewasa diamati 24 jam sekali dari telur hingga menjadi imago, jumlah telur yang diletakkan imago betina dihitung setiap hari, lama hidup imago betina dan jantan diamati serta dicatat hingga imagoimago tersebut mati. Data mortalitas dan biologi tungau R. robini hasil pengamatan dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analisis Ragam. Apabila terdapat kematian tungau uji pada cawan kontrol, maka persentasi kematian dikoreksi dengan rumus Abbot. Sedangkan, penentuan nilai LC50 dan LT50 menggunakan Analisis Probit. Nilai LC50 fumigan ekstrak daun kelor adalah 2.675 ppm. Sedangkan, konsentrasi perlakuan fumigan EDK yang paling efektif adalah 2.500 ppm dengan waktu kematian tercepat 74 jam setelah aplikasi. Konsentrasi 2.500 ppm mampu meningkatkan persentase mortalitas sebesar 39,36% dan menghambat daya tetas telur lebih kurang 15%. Konsentrasi tersebut juga menyebabkan perkembangan pradewasa (19,50 hari) lebih lama dibandingkan kontrol (13,55 hari), keperidian (5,95 butir) lebih rendah dibandingkan kontrol (14,70 butir), dan lama hidup tungau umbi R. robini (3,70 hari) lebih singkat dibandingkan kontrol (6,55 hari).

English Abstract

Loss of agricultural products is not only occur in the cultivation process but also occur during storage in the warehouse. The damage rate of stored products due to pests and other biological agents reach 10-40%. One of pest that can be found in storage is bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparède (Acari: Acaridae). Efforts to minimize damage caused by bulb mite R. robini infestation in the storage is done by fumigation. Organic material which is potentially as fumigant is Moringa oleifera Lamarck leaf (Capparales). Moringa leaves contain of essential oils with active ingredient are saponins, polyphenols, and alkaloids. Research on the potensial development of Moringa leaf extract (MLE) potency as fumigant to the biology of bulb mite R. robini on storage product is still limited. Based on preliminary test, application of MLE fumigant at concentration 2,100 - 2,500 ppm able to kill and to inhibit growth of bulb mite R. robini. The aim of this research is to assess the bioactivity of biofumigant from MLE at various concentrations that are 2,100, 2,200, 2,300, 2,400 and 2,500 ppm to the percentage of mortality and development of bulb mite R. robini. The research was conducted from October 2016 to February 2017 at Laboratory of Toxicology and Laboratory of Plant Pest, Departement of Plant and Diseases, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya. Bulb mite R. robini was obtained from ginger tuber in the plantation located in Klakah Hamlet, Patokpicis Village, Wajak District, Malang Regency. Moringa leaf that used was obtained from Gending Village, Probolinggo. Mass rearing of mites was done in laboratory at 28-30˚C with relative humidity of approximately 70%. The MLE was made by separating the moringa leaves from the stalk, then was airdried for two days until wilted, then was chopped fine. Chopped moringa leaves was taken as much as 10 g, then mixed with 180 ml of 70% ethanol solvent. The mixture of the materials were shaken for 24 hours then filtered by using filter paper.The obtained filtrate was concentrated using a rotary evaporator at 75 °C. The extract obtained was then used as an acariside. MLE acariside toxicity assay toward bulb mite R. robini includes LC50, LT50, preadult development, life cycle, longevity of female and male adults, and fecundity. The tests used five concentration MLE treatments i.e. 2,100, 2,200, 2,300, 2,400 and 2,500 ppm and one control. Each test was repeated 20 times. Toxicity assay study was performed on a 1 L plastic jar containing a Petri dish, local potato slices as the mite diet, and MLE fumigant. MLE fumigant was made by dripping MLE on filter paper, then it was dried for two minutes. The mortality of LC50 was observed 48 hours after aplication (HAA) and mortality of LT50 was observed 24, 48, 72 and 96 HAA. The observation of egg hatchability was done five days ater apllication, preadult development was observed every 24 hour iv from egg phase until being adult, number of egg which is laid down by the female was counted every day, longevity female and male adult was observed then recorded until the adults death. Data on mortality and biology of bulb mite R. robini observations were analyzed using Variety Analysis. If there was death of test mites on the control disk, then the percentage of death was corrected by the Abbot formula. Meanwhile, the determination of LC50 and LT50 values using Probit Analysis. The value of LC50 fumigant of Moringa leaf extract is 2,675 ppm. Meanwhile, the most effective MLE fumigan treatment concentration was 2,500 ppm with the fastest death time 74 hours after application. The concentration of 2,500 ppm can increased the percentage of mortality by 39,36% and inhibited hatchability of egg 15%. That concentration also were causing the development of adult (19,50 day) longer than control (13,55 days), the fecundity (5,95 grains) lower than control (14,70 eggs), and the longevity (3,70 days) of the bulb mites R. robini shorter controls (6,55 days).

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2017/285/051706253
Uncontrolled Keywords: Produk Pertanian, Daun Kelor Moringa oleifera, Umbi Rhizoglyphus robini, Hama
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 632 Plant injuries, diseases, pests > 632.6 Animal pests > 632.654 2 Animal pests (Mites)
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Hama dan Penyakit Tanaman
Depositing User: Yusuf Dwi N.
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/4492
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