BKG

Janawara, Krisna Mangaji (2019) Uji Ketahanan 3 Genotip Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.) terhadap Cekaman Kekeringan. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Bawang Putih (Allium sativum L.) merupakan salah satu jenis tanaman yang dikenal luas oleh masyarakat Indonesia. Badan Pusat Statistik (2018) mencatat bahwa pada tahun 2013-2017 rata-rata jumlah konsumsi per kapita seminggu bawang putih berturut-turut adalah sebanyak 6.54 gram, 8.5 gram, 9.49 gram, 9.61 gram dan 8.87 gram. Permasalahan yang dialami dalam budidaya bawang putih ialah perubahan cuaca dan iklim yang tidak dapat diprediksi, sehingga saat musim kemarau potensi terjadinya cekaman kekeringan akan meningkat dan secara langsung akan mempengaruhi pertumbuhan tanaman karena air merupakan faktor utama dalam menunjang pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman. Pengujian ketahanan suatu genotip merupakan suatu kegiatan untuk mengetahui respon suatu genotip terhadap lingkungan tertentu, hal tersebut dikarenakan pertumbuhan suatu tanaman akan dipengaruhi oleh lingkungan sekitarnya. Evaluasi genotip pada tanaman bawang putih perlu dilakukan untuk mengetahui tingkat ketahanan suatu genotip tersebut terhadap adanya cekaman kekeringan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui ketahanan beberapa genotip bawang putih terhadap beberapa tahap cekaman kekeringan. Hipotesis dari penelitian ini ialah terdapat perbedaan ketahanan antara genotip bawang putih yang diamati. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Januari hingga bulan April 2019 di Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian (BPTP) Jawa Timur, yang terletak di Jalan Raya Karangploso Km. 4, Kepuharjo, Karangploso, Malang Jawa Timur. Alat yang digunakan antara lain polybag ukuran 20 cm x 20 cm, gelas ukur, gembor, meteran, alat tulis, kamera, jangka sorong, timbangan analitik, oven, soil pH and moisture meter, kertas label dan Leaf Area Meter (LAM). Bahan yang digunakan antara lain air, kemudian media tanam yang terdiri atas tanah dan pupuk limbah sapi organik, bahan tanam berupa bawang putih varietas lumbu putih, bawang putih varietas lumbu kuning dan aksesi bawang kayu, pupuk NPK, KNO3, dan SP-36 serta pengendali hama dan penyakit sintetis. Penelitian dilaksanakan di dalam screenhouse dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap Faktorial (RAL-F) dengan perlakuan 3 jenis genotip dan 5 taraf pemberian cekaman kekeringan, sehingga dihasilkan 15 kombinasi perlakuan. Percobaan menggunakan 3 ulangan sehingga dihasilkan 45 unit perlakuan dan setiap perlakuan terdapat 10 tanaman sehingga total keseluruhan terdapat 450 tanaman. Sampel tanaman yang digunakan yaitu sebanyak 3 tanaman setiap perlakuan. Genotip bawang putih yang diuji merupakan varietas Lumbu Putih, varietas Lumbu Kuning, dan aksesi Bawang Kayu. Taraf pemberian cekaman air diantaranya ialah 100% kapasitas lapang (sebagai kontrol), 80% kapasitas lapang, 60% kapasitas lapang, 40% kapasitas lapang, dan 20% kapasitas lapang. Variabel pengamatan meliputi persentase tumbuh tanaman, tinggi tanaman, luas daun, diameter umbi, jumlah siung dalam satu umbi, berat segar umbi, berat kering umbi, berat segar tanaman, dan berat kering tanaman. Data yang telah didapat kemudian diuji menggunakan analisis ragam dengan uji F pada taraf 5%. Hasil yang didapatkan berbeda nyata maka dilakukan uji lanjut menggunakan uji beda nyata terkecil (BNT). Hasil penelitian menunjukkan dari ketiga genotip bawang putih memberikan respon yang berbeda terhadap adanya cekaman kekeringan yang ditunjukkan melalui pertumbuhan vegetatif tanaman. Semakin tinggi tingkat cekaman yang dialami tanaman maka akan semakin menurunkan laju pertumbuhan dan hasil dari tanaman tersebut. Saat kondisi tercekam genotip lumbu kuning memberikan respon pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dari kedua genotip yang lain. Volume air minimal yang dibutuhkan tanaman untuk mendekati hasil yang setara dengan kondisi 100% kapasitas lapang ialah dengan memberikan pengairan sebanyak 80% kapasitas lapang, karena dengan pengairan tersebut tanaman mampu tumbuh dan berproduksi mendekati pertumbuhan tanaman pada kondisi optimal.

English Abstract

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is one of the famous plants known by Indonesian people. Central Bureau of Statistics (2018) recorded during 2013 until 2017 the average consumption of garlic each capita in one week are 6.54 grams, 8.5 grams, 9.49 grams, 9.61 grams, and 8.87 grams. One of the problem that has been encountered in garlic cultivation was the unpredicted climate change so that the possibility of drought stress will increase during the dry season and it will affect the plant growth because water is one of the main factor to support plant growth and plant production. The genotype tolerance test is a stage to knowing genotypes response to specific environmental conditions, therefore genotypes evaluation in garlic plant needed to get information about the tolerance level of garlic genotypes in drought stress condition. The aim of this research is to get information about genotypes tolerance under several levels of drought conditions. The hypothesis of this research, there are some differentiation in plant tolerance among observed garlic genotypes. The research was conducted in January 2019 until April 2019 in East Java Assessment Institute for Agricultural Technology. Placed in Karangploso highway Km. 4, Kepuharjo, Karangploso, Malang, East Java, Indonesia. Tools used in this research were 20 cm x 20 cm sized polybag, measuring cup, watering tool, measuring tool, stationery, camera, calipers, analytical scales, oven, soil pH and moisture meter, labels, and Leaf Area Meter (LAM). The materials used in this research were water, soil, organic manure as plant media, and 3 genotypes of garlic. Fertilizer that will be used are NPK, KNO3, and SP-36, and also chemical pest and disease controller as an equipment to give a treatment to the plant. The cultivation was in a screen house with Factorial Completely Randomized Design with 2 factors. Those factors were 3 genotypes and 5 levels of drought stress, so there were 15 combinations of treatment. The experimental design was replicated 3 times, so there were 45 units of treatment, and every treatment there were 10 plants, it makes there were total of 450 plants in this research. The sample plant was chosen 3 plants every treatment. Garlic genotypes that were tested are Lumbu Putih varieties, Lumbu Kuning varieties, and Bawang Kayu Accession. The level of drought stress were 100% field capacity as a control variable, 80% field capacity, 60% field capacity, 40% field capacity, and 20% field capacity. Observation variables were plant height, leaf area, bulb diameter, total clove in one bulb, bulb fresh weight, bulb dry weight, plant fresh weight, and plant dry weight. Obtained data were tested with analysis of variance with the F test at the level of 5%. a significantly different result was carried out using the least significance difference (LSD) test. The result showed that from those three genotypes of garlic has different vegetative growth under several water condition, the higher drought condition the lower plant growth and its yield. In drought condition, lumbu kuning genotypes showed better vegetative growth between lumbu putih genotype and bawang kayu genotype. The minimal water amount needed by the garlic plant to get the same vegetative growth as 100% field capacity was in 80% field capacity.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2019/823/051909713
Uncontrolled Keywords: -
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 635 Garden crops (Horticulture) > 635.2 Edible tubers and bulbs > 635.25 Onions
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: soegeng
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/174800
Text
Krisna Mangaji Janawara.pdf

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