BKG

Pratama, Amrizal Ivan (2019) Aplikasi Cendawan Mikoriza terhadap Ketersediaan Hara Tanah, Pertumbuhan dan Produksi Tanaman Stroberi (Fragaria sp.) di Kecamatan Leces, Kabupaten Probolinggo. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Tanaman stroberi (Fragaria sp.) merupakan tanaman subtropis yang telah lama diintroduksi dan dapat beradaptasi di dataran tinggi tropis. Saat ini produksi stroberi dari petani masih sangat kurang dan belum dapat mencukupi permintaan yang terus bertambah. Menurut data dari BPS Provinsi Jawa Timur, produksi stroberi pada tahun 2017 mencapai 382 ton yang cenderung berkurang dibanding tahun sebelumnya yang berkisar di angka 625 ton. Pada tahun 2012 budidaya stroberi berhasil dilakukan di Leces-Jawa Timur. Leces merupakan salah satu kecamatan di Kab. Probolinggo yang memiliki ketinggian 10-50 mdpl dengan temperatur udara berkisar antara 27 sampai 31 C, dan memiliki curah hujan ratarata 229 mm. Tanaman stroberi di Leces mampu bertahan hidup, namun pertumbuhannya tidak sebaik stroberi di dataran tinggi dan produksinya masih tergolong rendah. Dari 40-50 tanaman yang dibudidayakan, total panen mencapai 2,2 kg pada periode panen 2013 dan 2,5 kg pada periode panen 2014. Penanaman stroberi di dataran rendah untuk skala produksi belum banyak dilakukan, karena kondisi iklim yang tidak sesuai untuk pertumbuhan stroberi. Suhu adalah salah satu faktor terpenting yang mempengaruhi serapan hara stroberi. Berkurangnya penyerapan nutrisi seperti fosfor dan kalium akan menyebabkan stress pada tanaman yang akan berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan tanaman, periode perkembangan tanaman, dan total produksi tanaman. Salah satu upaya yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan meningkatkan penyerapan dan ketersediaan hara untuk tanaman stroberi. Aplikasi cendawan mikoriza merupakan salah satu solusi dalam meningkatkan serapan hara oleh tanaman terutama hara P. Dengan meningkatkan kapasitas dalam penyerapan unsur hara diharapkan mampu mengoptimalkan pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman stroberi di Leces, serta membantu tanaman untuk lebih beradaptasi dengan iklim dan lingkungan di Kecamatan Leces. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan bulan Oktober 2017 – Maret 2018. Percobaan lapang dilakukan di petak lahan berukuran 3 x 5 m yang berada di Desa Sumber Kedawung Kecamatan Leces, Kabupaten Probolinggo. Pengamatan jumlah spora mikoriza dan persentase infeksi akar dilakukan di Laboratorium Biologi Jurusan Tanah Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya pada 16 MST. Analisis sifat kimia media tanam dilakukan di Laboratorium Kimia Tanah Jurusan Tanah Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya pada 8 MST dan 16 MST. Penelitian menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL) yang terdiri dari 5 perlakuan dan 4 ulangan. Adapun perlakuan dalam penelitian ini yaitu K: Kontrol, M1: 10 g spora. M2: 20 g spora, M3: 30 g spora, M4: 40 g spora. Parameter yang diamati antara lain jumlah spora, persentase infeksi akar, pH media tanam, P total, P tersedia, C organik, serapan P tanaman, tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, jumlah buah, bobot buah dan total hasil panen. Data yang didapatkan dianalisis dengan uji Anova dan uji lanjutan BNT 5% menggunakan DSAASTAT pada Microsoft Excel. Hasil Penelitian menunjukkan kombinasi dosis pupuk hayati mikoriza yang diberikan pada tanaman stroberi berpengaruh nyata terhadap jumlah spora, presentase infeksi akar. Kombinasi terbaik dosis pupuk hayati mikoriza adalah perlakuan M4 (40 g tanaman-1) yang mampu meningkatkan jumlah spora sebanyak 136,25 spora 100 g tanah-1 maupun presentase infeksi akar sebesar 65,83 %. Perlakuan dosis pupuk hayati mikoriza berpengaruh nyata terhadap P tersedia, P total, dan C Organik. M4 (40 g tanaman-1) memberikan pengaruh tertinggi pada P total, P tersedia, dan C organik berturut-turut sebesar 0,157 %, 110,98 ppm dan 3,66 %. Untuk pH media tanam, perlakuan M3 (30 g tanaman-1) dan M4 (40 g tanaman-1) memberikan pengaruh terbaik berturut-turut sebesar 6,69 dan 6,65. Kenaikan dosis perlakuan pupuk hayati mikoriza dari 10 g tanaman-1 (M1) hingga 40 g tanaman-1 (M4) berpengaruh nyata terhadap serapan P, pertumbuhan (tinggi tanaman) dan produksi tanaman stroberi (jumlah buah dan total hasil panen). Sedangkan pemberian pupuk hayati mikoriza tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap jumlah daun dan bobot buah.

English Abstract

Strawberry plants (Fragaria sp.) are subtropical plants that have long been introduced and can adapt to the tropical highlands. At present strawberry production from farmers is still very lacking and has not been able to meet market demand. According to data from the BPS of East Java Province, strawberry production in 2017 reached 382 tons which tended to decrease compared to the previous year which ranged from 625 tons. In 2012 strawberry cultivation was successfully carried out in Leces, East Java. Leces is one of the districts in the Regency. Probolinggo which has a height of 10-50 masl with air temperatures ranging from 27o to 31o C, and has an average rainfall of 229 mm. The strawberry in Leces is able to survive the condition, but its growth is not as good as strawberries in the highlands and its production is still relatively low. Of the 40-50 cultivated strawberries, total harvest reached 2,2 kg in the 2013 harvest period and 2,5 kg in the 2014 harvest period. Planting strawberry in the lowlands for production scale has not been widely carried out, because climate conditions are not suitable for strawberry growth. Temperature is one of the most important factors affecting the absorption of strawberry nutrients. Reduced absorption of nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium will cause stress on plants which will affect plant growth, plant development, and total crop production. One effort that can be done is to increase the absorption and availability of nutrients for strawberry. The application of mycorrhizal arbuscular is a solution in increasing nutrient uptake by plants, especially phosphorus nutrient. By increasing the capacity to absorb nutrients is expected to optimize the growth and production of strawberry, and help plants to better adapt to climate and environment in Leces District. The research was conducted in October 2017 - March 2018. The field experiment was carried out in a 3 x 5 m plot of land located in Sumber Kedawung Village, Leces District, Probolinggo Regency. Observation of the number of mycorrhizal spores and percentage of root infections was carried out in the Biology Laboratory of the Department of Soil, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya at 16 weeks after planting. Analysis of the chemical properties of planting media was carried out in the Soil Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Soil, Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University at 8 and 16 weeks after planting. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD) consisting of 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatment in this study is K: Control, M1: 10 g spores. M2: 20 g spores, M3: 30 g spores, M4: 40 g spores. Parameters observed included the number of spores, percentage of root infection, pH of planting media, total of P, available of P, carbon organic, plant phosphorus uptake, plant height, number of leaves, number of fruits, fruit weight and total yield. The data obtained were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD 5% using the DSAASTAT in Microsoft Excel. The results showed that the combination of mycorrhizal biofertilizer doses given to strawberries significantly affected the number of spores, percentage of root infections. The best combination of doses of mycorrhizal biofertilizer was treatment of M4 (40 g plant-1) which was able to increase the number of spores by 136,25 spores 100 g soil-1 and percentage of root infections by 65,83%. The treatment of mycorrhizal biofertilizer doses significantly affected the available of P, total of P, and carbon organic. M4 (40 g plant-1) gave the highest influence on total P, available P, and carbon organic respectively 0,157%, 110,98 ppm and 3,66%. For the pH of the planting medium, the treatment of M3 (30 g plant-1) and M4 (40 g plant-1) gave the best influences of 6,69 and 6,65 respectively. The increase in dosage of mycorrhizal biofertilizer from 10 g plant-1 (M1) to 40 g plant-1 (M4) significantly affected phosphorus uptake, growth (plant height) and production of strawberries (number of fruits and total yield). Whereas for the number of leaves and fruit weights there is no real effect from the treatment mycorrhizal biofertilizer doses.

Other Language Abstract

UNSPECIFIED

Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2019/413/051907151
Uncontrolled Keywords: Stroberi, Mikoriza, Fosfor, Produksi-Strawberry, Mycorrhizae, Phosphor, Production
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 634 Orchards, fruits, forestry > 634.7 Berries and herbaceous tropical and subtropical fruits > 634.75 Strawberries
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Agroekoteknologi
Depositing User: soegeng
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/173474
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