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Yuniarachma, Alifia (2019) Respon Pertumbuhan Dan Kandungan Flavonoid Tanaman Bangun-Bangun (Plectranthus Amboinicus Lour.) Pada Berbagai Kerapatan Naungan Dan Dosis Pupuk Nitrogen. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Indonesian Abstract

Bangun-bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus Lour.) ialah tanaman herba yang memiliki manfaat sebagai antioksidan karena mengandung flavonoid (Santosa dan Hertiani, 2005). Manfaat bangun-bangun sebagai antioksidan dibutuhkan karena mampu mengobati penyakit Diabetes Melitus (DM). Namun, produksi bangunbangun yang relatif rendah membuat harganya di pasaran tinggi. Untuk memenuhi permintaan tersebut, maka dibutuhkan suatu proses budidaya yang optimal, salah satunya dengan pengaturan intensitas cahaya dan dosis pupuk nitrogen. Bangunbangun ialah tanaman yang toleran terhadap naungan. Menurut Aziz (2013) bangun-bangun baik tumbuh pada naungan 25%-60% dan pada intensitas cahaya tertentu dapat menimbulkan cekaman sehingga menghasilkan flavonoid. Selain naungan, dosis pupuk nitrogen (N) juga mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan pada saat tercekam membentuk flavonoid, sehingga dibutuhkan penelitian mengenai kerapatan naungan dan dosis pupuk N yang sesuai untuk menghasilkan pertumbuhan dan flavonoid optimal pada tanaman bangun-bangun. Hipotesis pada penelitian ini yaitu perlakuan dosis pupuk N dan kerapatan naungan yang lebih tinggi akan menghasilkan pertumbuhan tanaman lebih baik atau dosis pupuk N dan kerapatan naungan lebih rendah akan menghasilkan kandungan flavonoid lebih tinggi. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Kebun Percobaan Jatimulyo Fakultas Pertanian Universitas Brawijaya yang terletak di Desa Jatimulyo. Pengujian kadar klorofil total dilaksanakan di lab. Fisiologi Tanaman. Pengujian jumlah stomata dilaksanakan di lab. Pemuliaan Tanaman dan uji flavonoid total dilaksanakan di lab. Farmasi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya. Penelitian lapang dilaksanakan dari bulan Februari sampai Mei 2019 dan penelitian di laboratorium dilaksanakan bulan Mei-Juni 2019. Alat yang digunakan yaitu polibag ukuran 35 x 35 cm, paranet 25%, paranet 50%, paranet 75%, luxmeter, leaf area meter, digital thickness gauge, cangkul, cetok, gunting, bambu, label, meteran, plastik, alat tulis, timbangan digital, amplop, oven, grinder, mortal pistil, fial fim, cuvet, sonikator, vorteks, botol laboratorium, tabung reaksi, gelas ukur, pipet, dan spektrofotometer uv-vis. Bahan yang digunakan yaitu bibit bangun-bangun umur + 30 hari, urea, pupuk SP36, pupuk KCl, tanah, sekam, pestisida nabati berbahan aktif Bacillus thuringiensis (Turex WP) dosis 2g/l, aquabides, aquades, etanol p.a, metanol p.a AlCl3, kuteks, selotip bening, dan kertas whatman. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode Rancangan Petak Terbagi (RPT). Faktor utama berupa perbedaan kerapatan naungan yaitu tanpa naungan (N0), naungan 25% (N1), naungan 50% (N2), dan naungan 75% (N3), sedangkan faktor kedua adalah perlakuan dosis pupuk N yang terdiri dari tanpa pupuk urea (P0), pupuk urea 100 kg/ha (P1), dan pupuk urea 235 kg/ha (P2). Ulangan dilakukan sebanyak 3 kali sehingga terdapat 36 satuan perlakuan. Pengamatan dilakukan 1-7 mst untuk perlakuan non destruktif yaitu tinggi tanaman, jumlah daun, jumlah cabang, luasii daun, tebal daun, dan intensitas cahaya. Sedangkan pengamatan destruktif berupa kadar klorofil total, kerapatan stomata, waktu panen, bobot segar total, bobot kering total, dan kadar total flavonoid. Data hasil pengamatan dianalisis menggunakan analisis ragam dan dilakukan uji F hitung, apabila terjadi pengaruh nyata maka dilanjutkan uji BNJ taraf 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada pengamatan pertumbuhan terdapat interaksi antara perlakuan kerapatan naungan dan dosis pupuk urea jika dilihat dari variabel jumlah daun, jumlah cabang, luas daun, tebal daun dan kadar klorofil total. Pada variabel jumlah daun, jumlah cabang, dan luas daun menunjukkan interaksi perlakuan tanpa naungan dan dosis urea 235 kg/ha memberikan hasil yang lebih tinggi dibanding dengan perlakuan lain, namun tidak berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan tanpa naungan dan dosis urea 100 kg/ha. Pada variabel tebal daun, interaksi tanpa naungan dan tanpa pupuk menghasilkan daun yang lebih tebal dibanding dengan perlakuan lain, meskipun tidak berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan tanpa naungan dosis urea 100 kg/ha. Sedangkan pada variabel kadar klorofil total didapatkan nilai lebih tinggi pada interaksi kerapatan naungan 75% dan dosis urea 235 kg/ha meskipun tidak berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan kerapatan naungan 50% pada dosis urea 100 kg/ha dan 235 kg/ha. Pada pengamatan hasil tidak ditemukan interaksi antara perlakuan kerapatan naungan dan pupuk urea. Secara terpisah terdapat pengaruh kerapatan naungan dan dosis pupuk urea tanpa adanya interaksi pada variabel bobot segar total dan bobot kering total. Semakin tinggi kerapatan naungan dan dosis urea menghasilkan bobot segar dan bobot kering total lebih tinggi. Pada variabel kandungan flavonoid total, pemberian dosis urea 235 kg/ha memberikan presentase flavonoid lebih tinggi meskipun tidak berbeda nyata dengan pemberian dosis urea 100 kg/ha. Maka, berdasarkan hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa perlakuan tanpa naungan dan dosis urea 100 kg/ha mampu memberikan hasil yang lebih optimal pada pertumbuhan dan kandungan flavonoid tanaman bangun-bangun.

English Abstract

Bangun-bangun (Plectranthus amboinicus Lour.) is an herbaceous plant that has benefits as an antioxidant because it contains flavonoids (Sentosa dan Hertiani, 2005). The benefits of bangun-bangun as an antioxidant are needed to cure diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the production of bangun-bangun relatively low so it make higher price in market. To fulfill the request, an optimal cultivation is needed, one of them are setting the light intensity and dosage of nitrogen fertilizer. Bangunbangun is one of a plants that are tolerant to shade. According to Aziz (2013) bangun-bangun can grows in the shade of 25%-60% and at certain light intensities can cause stress so as to produce flavonoids. In addition to shade, nitrogen (N) fertilizer dosage also affects the growth and when it stress, it will produce flavonoids, so this research is needed to know the shade density and dosage N fertilizer that suitable to produce optimal growth and flavonoids in bangun-bangun. The hypothesis in this research is about higher dosage of N and higher shade density will make a better plant growth or lower dosage of N and lower shade density will produce higher flavonoids. This research was conducted at the Jatimulyo Experimental Garden, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Brawijaya, which is located in Jatimulyo Village. To tested of total chlorophyll levels was carried out in the laboratory of Plant Physiology. Tested the number of stomata was carried out in the laboratory of Plant breeding and total flavonoid tests were carried out in the laboratory of Pharmacy Faculty of Medicine, University of Brawijaya. The field research was carried out from February to May 2019 and the research in the laboratory was conducted from May to June 2019. The tools used were polybag size 35 x 35 cm, paranet 25%, paranet 50%, paranet 75%, luxmeter, leaf area meter, digital thickness gauge, hoe, scissors, bamboo, label, meter, plastic, stationery, digital scales, envelopes, oven, grinder, mortal pistil, fial fim, cuvet, sonicator, vorteks, laboratory bottle, test tubes, measuring cups, pipettes, and uv-vis spectrophotometers. The materials used were bangun-bangun seed +30 days, urea, SP36 fertilizer, KCl fertilizer, soil, husk, biopesticide made from Bacillus thuringiensis (Turex WP) active doses of 2g / l, aquabides, aquades, ethanol p.a, methanol p.a, AlCl3, nail polish, clear masking tap and whatman paper. This research was conducted using the Split Plot Design (SPD) method. The main factors in the form of shade density differences were without shade (N0), shade of 25% (N1), shade of 50% (N2), and shade of 75% (N3), while the second factor was the treatment of N fertilizer dose consisting of without urea fertilizer ( P0), urea fertilizer 100 kg / ha (P1), and urea fertilizer 235 kg / ha (P2) with 3 replication so there were 36 treatment units. Observations were made 1-7 weeks for non-destructive treatment, namely plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, leaf area, leaf thickness, and light intensity. While destructive observations were total level of chlorophyll, stomata density, harvest time, total fresh weight, total dry weight, and total flavonoid content. The results of the observational data were analyzed using variety of analysis and the F test wasiv calculated, if there was a real effect then continue with the HSD test at the level of 5%. The results show that observations of growth contained interactions between the treatment of shade density and the dose of urea fertilizer on variable number of leaves, number of branches, leaf area, leaf thickness and total chlorophyll content. The variable number of leaves, number of branches, and leaf area showed that the interaction of treatment without shade and 235 kg / ha urea dose gave higher yield compared to other treatments, but not significantly different from the treatment without shade and 100 kg / ha urea dose. In the leaf thickness variable, the interaction without shade and without fertilizer produced thicker leaves compared to other treatments, although not significantly different from the treatment without 100 kg / ha urea shade. While, for the variable of total chlorophyll content was found in the interaction of shade density of 75% and dosage of urea 235 kg / ha meanwhile not significantly different from the treatment of shade density of 50% and doses of urea 100 kg / ha and 235 kg / ha. In observing the results, there was no interaction between shade density treatment and urea fertilizer. Separately there was effect of shade density and dosage of urea fertilizer without any interaction on the variables of total fresh weight and total dry weight. In the treatment of higher shade density and higher doses of urea produced higher total fresh and dry weight. In the variable of total flavonoid content, the dosage of 235 kg urea / ha gave higher percentage of flavonoids, although not significantly different from 100 kg urea / ha. So, based on the results of the study, it was found that the treatment without shade and dose of 100 kg urea / ha was able to provide more optimal results in the growth and content of flavonoids in plants.

Other Language Abstract

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Item Type: Thesis (Sarjana)
Identification Number: SKR/FP/2019/113/051906830
Subjects: 600 Technology (Applied sciences) > 631 Specific techniques; apparatus, equipment materials > 631.8 Fertilizers, soil conditioners, growth regulators > 631.84 Nitrogen fertilizers
Divisions: Fakultas Pertanian > Budidaya Pertanian
Depositing User: Nur Cholis
URI: http://repository.ub.ac.id/id/eprint/172992
Text
ALIFIA YUNIARACHMA 155040201111023 (2).pdf

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